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Table 3 Summary of Independent Sample t-Tests for Age and Occupational Status and Chi-square Tests for Gender, Native Language, Educational Attainment, and Employment Status for LEO vs. PIAAC, LEO vs. NEPS, and PIAAC vs. NEPS among Low-Literate Adults

From: On the comparability of adults with low literacy across LEO, PIAAC, and NEPS. Methodological considerations and empirical evidence

  LEO vs. PIAAC LEO vs. NEPS PIAAC vs. NEPS
t/X2 df p ES t/X2 df p ES t/X2 df p ES
Gender 26.83 1  < 0.001 0.12 0.17 1 0.682 0.01 22.26 1  < 0.001 0.11
Age 4.12 1856  < 0.001 0.19 9.34 2137  < 0.001 0.47 4.30 1809  < 0.001 0.21
Native language 44.22 1  < 0.001 0.18 66.53 1  < 0.001 0.18 0.55 1 0.459 0.02
Educational attainment 7.70 3 0.053 0.06 55.41 3  < 0.001 0.16 41.35 3  < 0.001 0.15
 No vs. low 0.06 1 0.809 0.01 37.32 1  < 0.001 0.24 33.65 1  < 0.001 0.26
 No vs. medium 2.82 1 0.093 0.05 47.50 1  < 0.001 0.19 23.92 1  < 0.001 0.14
 No vs. high 0.16 1 0.686 0.02 44.21 1  < 0.001 0.31a 31.02 1  < 0.001 0.29
 Low vs. medium 5.76 1 0.016 0.07 0.04 1 0.848 0.01 4.81 1 .028 0.06
 Low vs. high 0.57 1 0.449 0.04 1.64 1 .201 0.05 0.05 1 .820 0.01
 Medium vs. high 0.85 1 0.358 0.03 1.60 1 .206 0.03 4.65 1 .031 0.06
Employment status 21.25 2  < 0.001 0.11 14.72 2  < 0.001 0.08 56.32 2  < 0.001 0.18
 Employed vs. unemployed 12.43 1  < 0.001 0.10 0.13 1 0.716 0.01 15.24 1  < 0.001 0.11
 Employed vs. other 3.64 1 0.056 0.05 12.61 1  < 0.001 0.09 27.59 1  < 0.001 0.14
 Unemployed vs. other 20.49 1  < 0.001 0.17 9.93 1 0.002 0.11 52.14 1  < 0.001 0.28
Occupational status 2.37 1856 0.018 − 0.11 2.27 2137 0.023 − 0.10 0.34 1809 .735 0.02
  1. t-value for age and occupational status, X2 for gender, native language, educational attainment, and employment status; ES Effect size (Cramer’s V for educational attainment and employment status; ϕ for gender, native language, educational attainment, and employment status; Cohen’s d for age and occupational status); Variables highlighted in italic are significant in terms of small effect sizes, variables highlighted in italic with a are significant in terms of medium effect sizes