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Table 6 Early entrance and PISA Scores (Plausible Values)

From: Early school entrance and middle-run academic performance in Mexico: evidence for 15-year-old students from the PISA test

  Mathematics Reading Science
5 7 5 7 5 7
Early (d) − 6.6*** − 5.6** − 10.3*** − 9.6*** − 10.7*** − 9.7***
9th grade (d) − 38.6*** − 31.0*** − 40.7*** − 33.3*** − 36.8*** − 29.8***
Early * 9th grade − 20.1 − 16.1 − 13.7 − 12.3 − 8.9 − 5.9
Male (d) 16.5*** 17.6*** − 8.6*** − 8.3*** 12.5*** 12.3***
City size dummies (4) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Mother educ. dummies (6) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Mother does not work (d) − 4.3 − 5.0** − 8.6*** − 9.7*** − 6.9*** − 7.9***
Computer at home (d) 23.8*** 20.6*** 22.5*** 19.1*** 21.4*** 18.7***
Internet at home (d) 0.3 0.5 3.3 4.2 − 0.6 0.7
Private school (d)   − 2.6   3.0   − 4.3
Computers/student   8.1   5.2   7.5
Teachers with masters (%)   66.0***   68.2***   64.3***
Students/teacher   − 0.2*   − 0.2   − 0.2
Class size   0.0   − 0.2   − 0.1
Shortage of material (i)   − 6.8***   − 5.0**   − 4.7**
Shortage of staff (i)   2.3   0.7   0.1
School size dummies (2)   Yes   Yes   Yes
Constant 376.5*** 369.4*** 395.5*** 390.9*** 391.1*** 382.5***
Observations 6111 5824 6111 5824 6111 5824
F 21.11*** 17.95*** 24.66*** 18.37*** 22.48*** 19.45***
R2 0.18 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.18 0.20
  1. OLS regressions
  2. ***.- 99% significance, **.- 95% significance, *.-90% significance
  3. (d) dummy variable; (%) percentage variable; (i) index variable