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Table 7 Alternative composite measures of socio-economic status

From: The measure of socio-economic status in PISA: a review and some suggested improvements

 Original (ESCS)Replica (ESCS1)Alternative 1 (ESCS2)
“Parental education”PAREDPAREDPARED
“Parental occupation”HISEIHISEIHISEI
“Income/wealth”HOMEPOSHOMEPOS1HOMEPOS1
Imputation of missing valuesRegression on non-missing components + random normal noise
Weighting schemePCAPCAEqual weights
Non-missing observations466,458466,441466,441
missing observations10,39410,41110,411
OECD mean− 0.040.000.00
OECD st.dev.1.001.001.00
Range (min, max)− 7.3; 4.2− 6.8; 4.0− 6.9; 4.0
Correlation with original1.000.990.99
Country means
 Pearson correlation with original1.000.990.99
 Spearman correlation with original1.000.990.99
 Mean absolute deviation with original0.000.040.04
 Max positive deviation and country0.000.34 (Lebanon)0.33 (Lebanon)
 Min negative deviation and country0.00− 0.01 (Qatar)− 0.01 (Qatar)
Relationship with science performance (R2)
 OECD average0.1290.1320.132
 Pearson correlation with original1.001.001.00
 Spearman correlation with original1.001.001.00
 Mean absolute deviation with original0.000.000.00
 Max positive deviation0.000.01 (Slovak Republic)0.01 (Slovak Republic)
 Min negative deviation0.00− 0.01 (Belgium)− 0.01 (Belgium)
Relationship with science performance (beta)
 OECD average38.438.438.4
 Pearson correlation with original1.001.001.00
 Spearman correlation with original1.001.001.00
 Mean absolute deviation with original0.000.430.43
 Max positive deviation0.001.9 (Lebanon)2.1 (Lebanon)
 Min negative deviation0.00− 2.0 (Belgium)− 1.9 (Belgium)
  1. A comparison based on PISA 2015 data (Public use files, excluding Albania, Spanish regions’ sample, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Puerto Rico)