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Table 5 Alternative measures of the “parental occupation” component of socio-economic status.

From: The measure of socio-economic status in PISA: a review and some suggested improvements

 Original measure (HISEI)Replica (HISEI1)Alternative 1 (HISEI2)Alternative 1 (HISEI3)Alternative 2 (HISEI4)
ISEI score for housewives, unemployed, retired, studentsNoNoYesYesYes
Accuracy of coding (theoretical)4 digits4 digits (except AUT)4 digits2 digits1 digit
Student-level comparisons with original
 Number of non-missing observations426,611426,611439,676439,676439,676
 Number of missing observations50,24150,24137,17637,17637,176
 OECD mean51.851.851.250.950.8
 OECD standard deviation21.821.822.021.921.3
 Range (min, max)11–8911–8911–8911–7917–76
 Correlation with original measure in database1.
Country-level comparisons with original
 Country means
  Pearson correlation with original1.001.000.990.980.98
  Spearman correlation with original1.001.000.980.980.97
  Mean absolute deviation with original0.000.010.871.51.6
  Max positive deviation and country0.000.000.13 (Indonesia)1.4 (Viet Nam)1.34 (Viet Nam)
  Min negative deviation and country0.00− 0.41 (Austria)− 6.34 (Jordan)− 7.1 (Jordan)− 7.97 (Jordan)
 Relationship with science performance (R2)
  OECD average0.1090.1090.1150.1080.105
  Pearson correlation with original1.001.000.980.970.97
  Spearman correlation with original1.001.000.980.970.96
  Mean absolute deviation with original0.
  Max positive deviation and country0.000.000.04 (UAE)0.05 (UAE)0.05 (UAE)
  Min negative deviation and country0.00− 0.01 (Austria)− 0.01 (Austria)− 0.01 (Austria)− 0.02 (Peru)
 Relationship with science performance (beta)
  OECD average1.
  Pearson correlation with original1.001.000.990.980.98
  Spearman correlation with original1.001.000.990.970.97
  Mean absolute deviation with original0.
  Max positive deviation and country0.000.02 (Austria)0.23 (Slovak Republic)0.26 (UAE)0.25 (UAE)
  Min negative deviation and country0.000.00− 0.04 (Qatar)− 0.14 (Qatar)− 0.13 (New Zealand)
  1. A comparison based on PISA 2015 data (Public use files, excluding Albania, Spanish regions’ sample, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Puerto Rico)
  2. The Public Use File does not contain full ISCO codes for Austria. For this reason, the “replica” derived according to the original rules from public use files is different from the original HISEI variable in the database