Skip to main content

Table 1 International household possession items across survey cycles.

From: The measure of socio-economic status in PISA: a review and some suggested improvements

 PISA 2000PISA 2003PISA 2006PISA 2009PISA 2012PISA 2015PISA 2018
Which of the following are in your home?aST21aST17aST13ST20ST26ST011ST011
A desk to study atST21Q07ST17Q01ST13Q01 (CC)ST20Q01 (CC)ST26Q01ST011Q01TAST011Q01TA
A room of your ownST21Q02ST17Q02ST13Q02 (CC)ST20Q02 (CC)ST26Q02ST011Q02TAST011Q02TA
A quiet place to studyST21Q06ST17Q03ST13Q03 (CC)ST20Q03 (CC)ST26Q03ST011Q03TAST011Q03TA
A computer you can use for school workNST17Q04ST13Q04 (D)ST20Q04 (CC)ST26Q04ST011Q04TAST011Q04TA
Educational softwareST21Q03ST17Q05ST13Q05 (CC)ST20Q05 (CC)ST26Q05ST011Q05TAST011Q05TA
A link to the InternetST21Q04ST17Q06ST13Q06 (C)ST20Q06 (CC)ST26Q06ST011Q06TAST011Q06TA
Classic literature (e.g. <Shakespeare>)ST21Q09ST17Q08ST13Q08 (C)ST20Q07 (CC)ST26Q07ST011Q07TAST011Q07TA
Books of poetryST21Q10ST17Q09ST13Q09 (C)ST20Q08 (CC)ST26Q08ST011Q08TAST011Q08TA
Works of art (e.g. paintings)ST21Q11ST17Q10ST13Q10 (C)ST20Q09 (CC)ST26Q09ST011Q09TAST011Q09TA
Books to help with your school workST21Q08ST17Q11ST13Q11 (C)ST20Q10 (CC)ST26Q10ST011Q10TAST011Q10TA
<Technical reference books>NNNST20Q11 (CC)ST26Q11ST011Q11TAST011Q11TA
A dictionaryST21Q05ST17Q12ST13Q12 (CC)ST20Q12 (CC)ST26Q12ST011Q12TAST011Q12TA
Books on art, music, or designNNNNNST011Q16NAST011Q16NA
DishwasherST21Q01ST17Q13ST13Q13 (C)ST20Q13 (CC)ST26Q13 (C)NN
Your own calculatorNST17Q07ST13Q07 (C)NNNN
A <DVD> playerNNST13Q13 (C)bST20Q14 (CC)ST26Q14 (C)NN
How many of these are there at your home?cST22cST18 (S)ST14ST21ST27ST012ST012
TelevisionsST22Q02SST14Q02 (CC)ST21Q02 (CC)ST27Q02ST012Q01TAST012Q01TA
CarsST22Q06dSST14Q04 (CC)ST21Q04 (CC)ST27Q04ST012Q02TAST012Q02TA
Rooms with a bath or showerST22Q07eSSST21Q05 (CC)ST27Q05ST012Q03TAST012Q03TA
Cellular phonesST22Q01SST14Q01 (CC)ST21Q01 (CC)ST27Q01NN
<Cell phones> with internet access (e.g. smartphones)NNNNNST012Q05NAST012Q05NA
Computers (desktop computer, portable laptop, or notebook)fNNNNNST012Q06NAST012Q06NA
<Tablet computers> (e.g. <iPad®>, <BlackBerry® PlayBook™>)NNNNNST012Q07NAST012Q07NA
E-book readers (e.g. <Kindle™>, <Kobo>, <Bookeen>)NNNNNST012Q08NAST012Q08NA
Musical instruments (e.g. guitar, piano)NNNNNST012Q09NAST012Q09NA
Musical instruments (e.g. piano, violin)ST22Q05NNNNNN
ComputersfST22Q04SST14Q03 (CC)ST21Q03 (CC)ST27Q03NN
  1. C: included, but treated as country-specific item in the scaling of HOMEPOS; CC: in 2006, all items were treated as country-specific, but item parameters for a subset of 10 items—those marked CC and the “books at home” item—were constrained to sum to 0 for all countries. In 2009, again, all items were treated as country-specific, but all “common items” were used to determine the country means on a common scale, and a linear transformation based on these means was applied to within-country scale scores to make them “comparable”. S: Included in the questionnaire, but suppressed in the database; D: included in the questionnaire and database, but not in the scaling of the HOMEPOS index; N: not included in the questionnaire
  2. aIn 2000, the source version for this question was “In your home, do you have…”; in 2003, the source version for this question was “Which of the following do you have in your home?” and the answer format was different from that of all other years (only a tick box for “yes” was provided, meaning that missing answers could not be distinguished from “no” answers”)
  3. bIn 2006, “A <DVD or VCR> player (and treated as country-specific in scaling)
  4. cIn 2000, the source version for the second question was “How many of these do you have at your home”. All items were in singular (“Television”, etc.)
  5. dIn 2000 and 2003, the English source version used “Motor car”
  6. eIn 2000 and 2003, the English source version used “bathroom”; translation notes specified that translations of “bathroom” should refer to a place that contains washing facilities such as a shower or bathtub
  7. fNote that this was considered a new item in 2015, when the wording was changed to include the parenthesis