Skip to main content

Table 6 Weighted linear regression of the natural logarithm of the literacy score, Canada, 1994 IALS, 2003 ALL and 2012 PIAAC data combined (full model—with all control variables and alternating age, period and cohort variables)

From: Are large surveys of adult literacy skills as comparable over time as we think?

VariablesTotal population—full model 1994–2003–2012
Age-cohort (AC)Age-period (AP)Period-cohort (PC)
β ln(literacy score)
Age group
 25–34 years old (Ref. Cat.)
 16–24 years old0.049***
[0.008]
0.034***
[0.008]
 35–44 years old− 0.032**
[0.011]
− 0.012
[0.010]
 45–54 years old− 0.073***
[0.015]
− 0.031**
[0.011]
 55–64 years old− 0.115***
[0.016]
− 0.059***
[0.013]
Cohort (birth year)
1966–1974 (Ref. Cat.)
 1930–19380.015
[0.060]
− 0.132*
[0.057]
 1939–19470.049**
[0.014]
− 0.062***
[0.015]
 1948–19560.051**
[0.017]
− 0.019
[0.010]
 1957–19650.014
[0.008]
− 0.021***
[0.005]
 1975–1983− 0.014
[0.008]
0.020**
[0.006]
 1984–1992− 0.033***
[0.008]
0.040***
[0.007]
 1993+− 0.043***
[0.009]
0.066***
[0.010]
Period (survey year)
 2012 (Ref. Cat.)
 19940.050***
[0.008]
0.095***
[0.009]
 20030.037***
[0.004]
0.058***
[0.004]
Constant5.720***
[0.014]
5.685***
[0.013]
5.662***
[0.011]
Sample size (n)41,36241,36241,362
Adjusted R20.3920.3950.399
  1. ***p ≤ 0.001; **p ≤ 0.01; *p ≤ 0.05; p ≤ 0.1. Robust standard errors in brackets
  2. The regressions also include many other variables whose coefficients are not shown in the table: sex, province of residence, type of region (urban/rural), level of education, knowledge and use of official languages, mother’s level of education, practice of literacy activities at home, use of writing skills at work (and labour market participation status), and immigration status