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Table 4 Weighted linear regression of the natural logarithm of the literacy score, Canada, 1994 IALS, 2003 ALL and 2012 PIAAC data combined (Gross model—”Gross” cohort effect (with sex and age))

From: Are large surveys of adult literacy skills as comparable over time as we think?

VariablesTotal population—age-cohort (AC) gross model
1994–2003–20122003–20121994–20031994–2012
β ln(literacy score)
Sex
 Male (Ref. Cat)
 Female0.011
[0.008]
0.003
[0.004]
0.017
[0.012]
0.010
[0.012]
Age group
 25–34 years old (Ref. Cat)
 16–24 years old− 0.008
[0.009]
− 0.004
[0.007]
− 0.007
[0.013]
− 0.006
[0.014]
 35–44 years old− 0.017
[0.014]
− 0.034***
[0.007]
− 0.008
[0.018]
− 0.003
[0.024]
 45–54 years old− 0.056**
[0.015]
− 0.073***
[0.010]
− 0.029
[0.032]
− 0.052*
[0.019]
 55–64 years old− 0.113***
[0.019]
− 0.122***
[0.012]
− 0.092**
[0.033]
− 0.110***
[0.030]
Cohort (birth year)
 1966–1974 (Ref. Cat)
 1930–1938− 0.142
[0.077]
− 0.166
[0.085]
− 0.132
[0.080]
 1939–1947− 0.030
[0.020]
− 0.020
[0.017]
− 0.057
[0.032]
− 0.024
[0.029]
 1948–19560.004
[0.020]
0.016
[0.011]
− 0.020
[0.029]
0.008
[0.029]
 1957–1965− 0.016
[0.009]
− 0.007
[0.008]
− 0.020
[0.012]
− 0.008
[0.016]
 1975–19830.008
[0.006]
0.005
[0.006]
0.005
[0.009]
0.011
[0.010]
 1984–1992− 0.006
[0.010]
− 0.014
[0.009]
− 0.012
[0.015]
0.007
[0.013]
 1993+− 0.063***
[0.011]
− 0.067***
[0.011]
− 0.052***
[0.014]
Constant5.655***
[0.009]
5.658***
[0.007]
5.655***
[0.010]
5.642***
[0.015]
Sample size (n)41,36238,97920,64225,099
Adjusted R20.0660.0430.0740.071
  1. ***p ≤ 0.001; **p ≤ 0.01; *p ≤ 0.05; p ≤ 0.1. Robust standard errors in brackets