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An IEA-ETS Research Institute Journal

Fig. 2 | Large-scale Assessments in Education

Fig. 2

From: Are large surveys of adult literacy skills as comparable over time as we think?

Fig. 2

Age-literacy relationship for three native-born cohorts, Canada, 1994 IALS, 2003 ALL and 2012 PIAAC. The predicted values of the literacy score are generated by regression models stratified by cohort and survey year. These models also include the following control variables: sex, province of residence, type of region (urban/rural), level of education, knowledge and use of official languages, mother’s level of education, practice of literacy activities at home, and use of writing skills at work (and labour market participation status)

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