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Table 4 Easier and harder items for German students

From: DIF as a pedagogical tool: analysis of item characteristics in ICILS to understand what students are struggling with

Easier Harder
Aspect 1.1: Knowing about and understanding computer use
Click on a link (− 0.28)
Save a presentation with a new file name (− 0.39)
Switch applications to an internet browser from the taskbar (− 0.27)
Aspect 1.2: Accessing and evaluating information
Find specific information on a website (− 0.22)
Aspect 2.2: Creating information
Design and layout text in a poster (− 0.3)
Uses colour consistently throughout poster to convey meaning (− 0.27)
Establish a clear and complimentary role for a photo and its description on a website page (− 0.32)
Aspect 2.4: Using information securely and safely
Explain the features that make one of two passwords more secure (− 0.28)
Recognise that usage restrictions for images are a legal issue (− 0.22)
Aspect 1.1: Knowing about and understanding computer use
Open a link to a different page of a website (0.53)
Aspect 2.1: Transforming information
2.1: Excludes irrelevant information in a poster (0.35)
Aspect 2.4: Using information securely and safely
Identify information that is risky to include on a public profile (0.49)
Identify that an email does not originate from the purported sender (0.64)
Identify that a link’s URL does not match the URL displayed in the link text (0.25)
  1. Numbers in parenthesis are the DIF values