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Table 5 Gender gaps in percent of group membership related to mathematics achievement, cohort trends between grades 4 and 8

From: Trends in gender gaps: using 20 years of evidence from TIMSS

  1. Interpretation example: In England, in the group of the highest performing students (upper 20th percentile) the proportion of male students was 4% higher than the proportion of female students at grade 4 in 1995 (significant gap). Four years later, this gap has increased to 9% (significant gap). The gap change of 5% however was insignificant
  2. * Significant gap (p < 0.05)