Skip to main content

Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 3 Relationship between PISA mathematics score and student and school characteristics

From: Generational status, immigrant concentration and academic achievement: comparing first and second-generation immigrants with third-plus generation students

  PISA mathematics test score
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
First-generation − 27.5 (11.4)** 3.4 (9.1) − 19.6 (10.0)* − 1.1 (9.7)
Second-generation − 2.6 (8.1) 9.5 (5.4)* 5.9 (7.2) 7.7 (6.3)
Student characteristics
 Female   − 11.9 (3.1)***   − 12.5 (2.9)***
 Black   − 71.4 (6.9)***   − 65.4 (6.6)***
 Hispanic   − 19.3 (5.9)***   − 19.7 (5.4)***
 Asian   47.9 (10.4)***   39.7 (8.5)***
 Multiracial or other race   − 21.0 (8.1)***   − 16.1 (6.0)***
 Parental education—high school and some college   13.9 (6.1)**   7.5 (5.7)
 Parental education—college degree   47.1 (6.7)***   35.6 (6.7)***
 Wealth   4.2 (1.7)**   2.6 (1.6)
 Language other than English   − 21.6 (5.7)***   − 17.9 (5.5)***
 Grades 8–9   − 65.8 (5.3)***   − 60.2 (5.4)***
 Grades 11–12   29.6 (3.8)***   29.3 (3.7)***
School characteristics
 Public school    22.0 (11.3)** 28.5 (11.1)**
 Urban school    13.5 (8.0)* 17.0 (7.1)***
 Suburban school    9.1 (7.3) 11.9 (6.0)**
 Share of FRL eligible students greater than 75%    − 51.4 (8.1)*** − 24.5 (6.7)***
 School size    0.01 (0.005)** 0.01 (0.003)**
 Class size    − 0.4 (0.6) − 0.9 (0.4)*
 Student–mathematics teacher ratio    − 0.10 (0.07) − 0.08 (0.05)
 No mathematics teacher shortage    − 2.0 (6.0) − 1.7 (4.8)
 Share of mathematics teachers with a bachelor or masters degree in mathematics    7.8 (8.7) 6.2 (6.2)
 Share of dropouts greater than 10%    − 15.8 (6.6)** − 4.8 (5.1)
 Student-related aspects of school climate    4.8 (0.9)*** 3.4 (0.7)***
 Constant 491.7 (4.2)*** 481.2 (6.5)*** 364.7 (30.9) *** 397.0 (25.0)***
 N (weighted) 3700 (2,607,686) 3700 (2,607,686) 3700 (2,607,686) 3700 (2,607,686)
 R-square 0.006 0.27 0.13 0.31
  1. The reference categories are: third-plus generation for immigrant generation group, White students for race, less than high school for parental education, Grade 10 for student’s current grade, and rural school for school locale
  2. p < 0.10, ** p < 0.05, *** p < 0.01