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Table 5 Correlations of PISA national mean scores with cluster position effects, total variance in persistence, and between-school and within-school correlations between ability and persistence in the three PISA assessments

From: Predictors of individual performance changes related to item positions in PISA assessments

Estimated parameter PISA national mean score
2006 science 2009 reading 2012 mathematics
Cluster position effect \(\gamma^{ *}\) .695 .340 .680
Total variance in persistence \(\left( {\sigma_{\delta s}^{ *2} + \sigma_{\delta ps}^{ *2} } \right)\) −.303 −.624 −.507
Between-school correlation \(\rho_{{\theta_{s} \delta_{s} }}\) .593 .580 .704
Within-school correlation \(\rho_{{\theta_{ps} \delta_{ps} }}\) .446 .621 .662
  1. Note All correlations are significant at an alpha level of .05