From: Predictors of individual performance changes related to item positions in PISA assessments

Estimated parameter | PISA national mean score | ||
---|---|---|---|

2006 science | 2009 reading | 2012 mathematics | |

Cluster position effect \(\gamma^{ *}\) | .695 | .340 | .680 |

Total variance in persistence \(\left( {\sigma_{\delta s}^{ *2} + \sigma_{\delta ps}^{ *2} } \right)\) | −.303 | −.624 | −.507 |

Between-school correlation \(\rho_{{\theta_{s} \delta_{s} }}\) | .593 | .580 | .704 |

Within-school correlation \(\rho_{{\theta_{ps} \delta_{ps} }}\) | .446 | .621 | .662 |