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Table 4 Mean ICC for persistence, mean correlations of ability and persistence between schools and within schools, and standard deviations across countries in PISA assessments

From: Predictors of individual performance changes related to item positions in PISA assessments

PISA cycle and domain \(\overline{\text{ICC}}_{\delta }\) (SD) \(\overline{\rho }_{{\theta_{s} \delta_{s} }}\) (SD) \(\overline{\rho }_{{\theta_{ps} \delta_{ps} }}\) (SD)
2006 science .079 (.062) .428 (.620) −.203 (.204)
2009 reading .085 (.044) .427 (.345) −.132 (.125)
2012 mathematics .063 (.052) .225 (.507) −.189 (.144)
  1. Note \({\text{ICC}}_{\delta }\), the intraclass correlation for persistence; \(\rho_{{\theta_{s} \delta s}}\), correlation between persistence and ability at the school level; \(\rho_{{\theta_{ps} \delta ps}}\), correlation between persistence and ability at the student level