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Table 7 Proficiency level descriptions

From: The standard setting process: validating interpretations of stakeholders

Optimal standard
Transfer basic concepts (principles, theories and laws) to other domains
Flexibly apply concepts in various contexts
Logically connect several variables
Norm standard plus
Take complex information and relations from a diagram and interpret the information
Apply content knowledge and apply it in new contexts
Apply basic concepts (principles, theories and laws)
Take scientific information from a challenging, specialized text
Norm standard
Take information of diagrams in a target-oriented manner without interpretation and compare if necessary
Reproduce simple content knowledge and utilize it in context
Take scientific information from a simple, specialized text
Minimum standard
Extract scientific information presented in a simply formulated specialized text
Objectively extract information from a diagram without interpretation
Take scientific information from a text or picture when these provide redundant/equal information
Verify the veracity of simple scientific statements based on a graphical representation
Below PL1
Below minimum standard
Fail the requirements of lower secondary education