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Table 8 Results analyses RQ3

From: Instructional quality: catalyst or pitfall in educational systems’ aim for high achievement and equity? An answer based on multilevel SEM analyses of TIMSS 2015 data in Flanders (Belgium), Germany, and Norway

  Flanders Germany Norway
b b b b b b b b b b b b b b
Model within
 MATH on SES .19*** .19*** .19*** .19*** .19*** .19*** .32*** .32*** .32*** .32*** .22*** .22*** .22*** .22***
 MATH on LANG .12*** .12*** .12*** .12*** .12*** .12*** .08*** .08*** .07*** .08*** .08*** .08*** .08*** .08***
Model between
 MATH on CM .39***    .37***    .47**   .51**   .57***   .58***  
 MATH on SC   .07    .02    .03   .06   − .01   .04
 MATH on CA(2)    − 1.25***    − 1.20***         
Cross-level moderation
 MATH on SES * CM − .01       .07     − .19    
 MATH on SES * SC   − .07       − .13     .00   
 MATH on SES * CA(2)    − .10            
 MATH on LANG * CM     − .02      − .08     − .05  
 MATH on LANG * SC      .02      .03     − .21
 MATH on LANG * CA(2)       .12         
N 5321 5321 5321 5323 5323 5323 3284 3284 3330 3330 4091 4091 4095 4095
Model fit
Loglikelihood (df) − 55,364.77 (31) − 55,175.35 (31) − 42,667.00 (23) − 55,405.92 (31) − 55,198.73 (31) − 42,659.97 (23) − 33,393.38 (31) − 33,764.04 (31) − 33,725.83 (31) − 34,081.40 (31) − 42,748.42 (31) − 43,441.46 (31) − 42,763.18 (31) − 43,385.81 (31)
  1. *** p < .001; ** p < .01