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Table 5 Results final CFA analyses RQ1 with adapted scale constructs

From: Instructional quality: catalyst or pitfall in educational systems’ aim for high achievement and equity? An answer based on multilevel SEM analyses of TIMSS 2015 data in Flanders (Belgium), Germany, and Norway

  Flandersb Germany Norway
b (SE) b (SE) b (SE)
Model within
 Classroom management
  CM–CM1 .54*** (.02) .58*** (.02) .59*** (.02)
  CM– .51*** (.03) .71*** (.02) .70*** (.02)
  CM–CM3 .46*** (.03) .68*** (.03) .63*** (.02)
  CM–CM4 .43*** (.03) .52*** (.02) .39*** (.03)
  CM–CM5 .47*** (.02) .57*** (.02) .52*** (.03)
 Supportive climatea
  SC–SC1 .69*** (.02) .60*** (.03) .57*** (.02)
  SC–SC2 .68*** (.02) .65*** (.02) .53*** (.03)
  SC–SC3 .57*** (.03) .63*** (.02) .66*** (.02)
  SC–SC4 .69*** (.02) .74*** (.02) .64*** (.02)
  SC–SC5 .40*** (.02) .41*** (.03) .60*** (.02)
  SC–SC6    .65*** (.02)
  SC–SC7    .58*** (.02)
  SC–SC8    .66*** (.02)
  SC–SC9    .59*** (.02)
  SC–SC10    .53*** (.02)
 Cognitive activation component 2
  CA–CA2 .60*** (.03)   
  CA–CA5 .52*** (.02)   
  CA–CA7 .45*** (.03)   
 Correlations
  CM–SC .18*** .16*** .11***
  CM–CA(2) − .04   
  SC–CA(2) .63***   
Model between
 Classroom management
  CM–CM1 1.00*** (.03) .96*** (.03) 1.00*** (.03)
  CM–CM2 .83*** (.04) .99*** (.03) .91*** (.04)
  CM–CM3 .85*** (.05) .94*** (.03) .87*** (.06)
  CM–CM4 .79*** (.05) .91*** (.04) .96*** (.05)
  CM–CM5 .83*** (.04) .91*** (.03) .92*** (.05)
 Supportive climatea
  SC–SC1 .85*** (.05) .88*** (.06) .97*** (.06)
  SC–SC2 .94*** (.04) .92*** (.06) .94*** (.09)
  SC–SC3 .95*** (.05) .85*** (.07) .88*** (.07)
  SC–SC4 .83*** (.05) .96*** (.04) .87*** (.06)
  SC–SC5 .75*** (.07) .90*** (.08) .98*** (.07)
  SC–SC6    .98*** (.06)
  SC–SC7    .96*** (.15)
  SC–SC8    .90*** (.08)
  SC–SC9    .80*** (.19)
  SC–SC10    .52*** (.14)
 Cognitive activation component 2
  CA–CA2 .87*** (.07)   
  CA–CA5 .87*** (.10)   
  CA–CA7 .65*** (.11)   
 Correlations    
  CM–SC .36*** .12 .54***
  CM–CA(2) .04   
  SC–CA(2) .69***   
Model fit
RMSEA .02 .03 .03
CFI .96 .97 .95
SRMR within .03 .02 .03
SRMR between .07 .06 .08
Chi2 (df) 501.99*** (120) 249.47*** (64) 706.42*** (170)
ICC ICC[1] ICC[2] ICC[1] ICC[2] ICC[1] ICC[2]
CM .36 .91 .23 .81 .22 .84
SC .16 .77 .10 .62 .14 .75
CA(2) .18 .79     
ω Within Between Within Between Within Between
CM .64 .99 .78 .99 .73 .78
SC .76 .99 .76 .99 .85 .92
CA(2) .55 .99     
  1. *** p < .001
  2. aAs stated in the paragraph 'Measures' under the heading of 'Research design', in Norway supportive climate was measured by different items. The items and accompanying numbering of items in the analyses of Norway stem from the item numbering in Appendix
  3. bFor reasons of uniformity of the models across countries, we also estimated a model in Flanders not including the construct of CA(2). This model shows similar fit indices and does not significantly differ from the model reported with regard to factor loadings of CM and SC