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Table 2 Results initial CFA analyses RQ1

From: Instructional quality: catalyst or pitfall in educational systems’ aim for high achievement and equity? An answer based on multilevel SEM analyses of TIMSS 2015 data in Flanders (Belgium), Germany, and Norway

  Flanders Germany Norway
b (SE) b (SE) b (SE)
Model within
 Classroom management
  CM–CM1 .46*** (.02) .56*** (.02) .55*** (.02)
  CM–CM2 .63*** (.02) .71*** (.01) .75*** (.02)
  CM–CM3 .61*** (.02) .71*** (.02) .70*** (.02)
  CM–CM4 .40*** (.02) .55*** (.02) .39*** (.03)
  CM–CM5 .46*** (.02) .60*** (.02) .51*** (.03)
 Supportive climatea
  SC–SC1 .71*** (.02) .61*** (.02) .57*** (.02)
  SC–SC2 .68*** (.02) .65*** (.02) .54*** (.03)
  SC–SC3 .54*** (.02) .64*** (.02) .66*** (.02)
  SC–SC4 .70*** (.01) .73*** (.02) .64*** (.02)
  SC–SC5 .39*** (.02) .41*** (.03) .63*** (.02)
  SC–SC6    .66*** (.02)
  SC–SC7    .58*** (.02)
  SC–SC8    .64*** (.02)
  SC–SC9    .62*** (.02)
  SC–SC10    .54*** (.02)
 Cognitive activationb
  CA–CA1b .74*** (.01) .76*** (.02)  
  CA–CA2 .29*** (.02) .40*** (.03) .64*** (.02)
  CA–CA3 .76*** (.02) .78*** (.02) .44*** (.02)
  CA–CA4b .56*** (.02) .57*** (.02)  
  CA–CA5 .28*** (.02) .36*** (.03) .61*** (.02)
  CA–CA6b    .60*** (.02)
  CA–CA7 .26*** (.02) .37*** (.03) .55*** (.02)
 Correlations
  CM–SC .15*** .15*** .10***
  CM–CA − .26*** − .18*** .06
  SC–CA .18*** .35*** .76***
Model between
 Classroom management
  CM–CM1 .96*** (.03) .96*** (.02) .97*** (.03)
  CM–CM2 .89*** (.03) .99*** (.02) .96*** (.02)
  CM–CM3 .89*** (.03) .94*** (.02) .93*** (.03)
  CM–CM4 .81*** (.06) .92*** (.04) .97*** (.05)
  CM–CM5 .83*** (.05) .92*** (.03) .91*** (.04)
 Supportive climatea    
  SC–SC1 .83*** (.05) .88*** (.06) .97*** (.06)
  SC–SC2 .94*** (.04) .88*** (.07) .94*** (.08)
  SC–SC3 .99*** (.04) .94*** (.05) .88*** (.07)
  SC–SC4 .81*** (.06) .93*** (.04) .89*** (.06)
  SC–SC5 .75*** (.07) .89*** (.08) .97*** (.07)
  SC–SC6    .97*** (.06)
  SC–SC7    .97*** (.16)
  SC–SC8    .91*** (.07)
  SC–SC9    .81*** (.18)
  SC–SC10    .50*** (.18)
 Cognitive activationb
  CA–CA1b .29 (.25) .23** (.08)  
  CA–CA2 .93*** (.05) 1.01*** (.07) .99*** (.11)
  CA–CA3 .38 (.24) − .36 (.85) .38 (.26)
  CA–CA4b .20 (.23) .19 (.24)  
  CA–CA5 .98*** (.08) .81*** (.09) .90*** (.09)
  CA–CA6b    .92*** (.07)
  CA–CA7 .74*** (.08) .83*** (.10) .82*** (.10)
 Correlations
  CM–SC .33*** .18 .56***
  CM–CA .08 .35** .64***
  SC–CA .83*** .96*** .82***
Model fit
RMSEA .04 .05 .03
CFI .83 .85 .93
SRMR within .08 .08 .04
SRMR between .21 .23 .12
Chi2 (df) 2168.35*** (202) 1948.74*** (202) 1443.72*** (334)
ICC ICC[1] ICC[2] ICC[1] ICC[2] ICC[1] ICC[2]
CM .40 .92 .24 .82 .24 .86
SC .13 .74 .10 .62 .14 .75
CAb .00 .00 .00 .00 .05 .48
  1. *** p < .001; ** p < .01
  2. aAs stated in the paragraph 'Measures' under the heading of 'Research design', in Norway supportive climate was measured by different items. The items and accompanying numbering of items in the analyses of Norway stem from the item numbering in Appendix
  3. bFor the model to converge, in Flanders and Germany, item 6 had to be deleted; in Norway, item 1 and 4 had to be deleted