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Table 4 Family SES and subject-specific interest: causal mediation of parental cognitive involvement

From: Socio-economic gaps in subject interest: the mediating role of parental cognitive involvement

Education system Student reading interest Student mathematics interest
% Mediated   ACME   Direct   Total   % Mediated   ACME   Direct   Total  
Austria 15.06   0.02 * 0.09   0.10   − 7.90   0.01 * − 0.06   − 0.05  
Azerbaijan 11.25 * 0.01 * 0.12 * 0.13 * 6.88 * 0.01 * 0.14 * 0.15 *
Canada (Quebec) 12.30 * 0.02 * 0.17 * 0.19 * 0.65   0.00   0.01   0.01  
Chinese Taipei 8.90 * 0.02 * 0.15 * 0.17 * 17.83 * 0.03 * 0.12 * 0.14 *
Croatia − 11.76   0.01   − 0.04   − 0.03   0.68   0.00   0.18 * 0.18 *
Czech Republic 1.98   0.00   0.16 * 0.17 * 11.73   − 0.01   − 0.02   − 0.03  
Finland 6.78 * 0.01 * 0.16 * 0.18 * − 1.55   0.00   0.13 * 0.12 *
Georgia 3.93   0.00   0.06   0.06   3.00   0.00   0.14 * 0.14 *
Hong Kong 24.31   0.01 * 0.03   0.04   10.05   0.02 * − 0.01   0.00  
Hungary − 5.05   0.00   0.05   0.05   1.47   0.00   0.12 * 0.13 *
Iran 0.28   0.00   0.14 * 0.14 * 3.92 * 0.00   0.08 * 0.09 *
Ireland 8.03 * 0.01 * 0.11 * 0.12 * − 11.30   0.01 * − 0.06   − 0.05  
Italy 19.82   0.01 * 0.04   0.05   3.85   0.01 * 0.00   0.01  
Lithuania − 6.28   0.00   − 0.04   − 0.04   2.41   0.00   0.12 * 0.13 *
Malta 35.24   0.03 * 0.06   0.09   16.90   0.01 * 0.04   0.06  
Norway 21.81   0.02 * 0.06   0.08   9.56   0.01 * 0.12   0.14  
Poland 2.95   0.00   0.16 * 0.16 * − 2.37   0.00   0.11 * 0.10 *
Portugal 9.16 * 0.01 * 0.09 * 0.10 * 4.10   0.00   0.05   0.05  
Romania 10.45 * 0.02 * 0.21 * 0.24 * 22.19 * 0.03 * 0.11 * 0.14 *
Russian Federation − 15.13   0.01   − 0.06   − 0.05   2.47   0.00   0.12 * 0.12 *
Singapore 21.01 * 0.03 * 0.12 * 0.15 * 0.71   0.00   0.15 * 0.15 *
Slovak Republic − 0.73   0.00   0.04   0.04   − 0.24   0.00   0.13 * 0.13 *
Slovenia 27.28   0.02 * 0.03   0.05   − 1.30   0.00   − 0.02   − 0.02  
Spain 5.02   0.01 * 0.10 * 0.11 * 2.98   0.00   0.03   0.04  
Sweden 36.00   0.03 * 0.04   0.08   10.61   0.01 * 0.03   0.04  
United Arab Emirates 9.17 * 0.01 * 0.13 * 0.14 * 7.12 * 0.01 * 0.16 * 0.17 *
Abu Dhabi 13.81 * 0.02 * 0.11 * 0.13 * 5.08 * 0.01 * 0.17 * 0.18 *
Dubai 3.74 * 0.01 * 0.20 * 0.20 * 7.47 * 0.01 * 0.17 * 0.18 *
  1. * Statistically significant (p<0.05). The mediating mechanism is parental literacy involvement for reading interest and parental numeracy involvement for mathematics interest. ACME is the average causal mediation effect \(\hat{\beta }_{2} \hat{\gamma }\); Direct is the direct effect of family SES \(\hat{\beta }_{3}\); Total is the total effect of family SES \(\hat{\beta }_{1}\); and % Mediated is the percentage of the family SES effect mediated by parental cognitive involvement mechanism