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Table 2 Study 1 and Study 2: relations between academic self-concept and belief about one’s own perspective-taking over time

From: School students’ beliefs about abilities and perspective-taking over time

  Study 1 Study 2
Girls Boys Girls Boys
β SE p β SE p β SE p β SE p
T1 BPT regressed on
Fluid reas. .042 .032 .192 − .067 .030 .025
Rec. voc. .015 .039 .698 .092 .038 .017
Reading flu. .073 .035 .038 .016 .033 .626
Migration .022 .021 .310 − .036 .022 .103 − .009 .031 .765 .029 .029 .315
T. of school .037 .020 .070 .007 .021 .748 .013 .031 .672 .048 .028 .093
SES .049 .023 .030 − .017 .023 .467 − .006 .036 .875 − .005 .034 .885
T1 ASC regressed on
Fluid reas. .002 .022 .942 − .039 .021 .059
Rec. voc. .061 .027 .024 .135 .026 < .001
Reading flu. .204 .025 < .001 .149 .024 < .001
Migration .020 .024 .408 − .030 .020 .113 .041 .020 .035 .005 .020 .780
T. of school .102 .024 .000 .030 .020 .155 .036 .020 .073 .013 .019 .499
SES .080 .027 .003 .022 .020 .290 .053 .023 .020 .036 .021 .091
T2 BPT regressed on
T1 BPT .420 .054 .000 .353 .046 .000 .409 .048 0 .343 .046 <  .001
T1 ASC .082 .037 .028 .187 .043 .000 .180 .065 .005 .309 .058 < .001
T2 Math Gr. .034 .024 .159 − .015 .025 .558
T2 Lit. Gr. − .068 .027 .011 − .083 .026 .001 − .037 .031 .227 − .075 .029 .010
Fluid reas. − .032 .025 .214 .017 .024 .479
Rec. voc. − .017 .031 .574 − .040 .032 .220
Reading flu. − .062 .030 .040 − .067 .026 .010
Migration .006 .023 .801 .002 .024 .921 .038 .023 .100 .012 .022 .599
T. of school .035 .022 .116 − .027 .023 .235 .017 .024 .487 − .016 .022 .462
SES − .020 .025 .435 .018 .024 .463 − .012 .031 .705 .005 .025 .833
T2 ASC regressed on
T1 BPT .078 .043 .072 .088 .037 .016 .149 .041 < .001 .044 .032 .176
T1 ASC .612 .048 .000 .635 .048 .000 .704 .082 < .001 .616 .067 < .001
T2 Math Gr. − .183 .025 .000 − .186 .023 .000
T2 Lit. Gr. − .215 .026 .000 − .126 .024 .000 − .068 .030 .021 − .101 .026 < .001
Fluid reas. − .022 .022 .321 − .007 .022 .734
Rec. voc. .024 .028 .404 .051 .026 .049
Reading flu. .047 .030 .115 .030 .022 .176
Migration .025 .021 .236 .076 .020 .000 .027 .022 .211 .037 .021 .080
T. of school − .068 .022 .003 − .059 .019 .002 .003 .021 .887 − .012 .019 .512
SES − .101 .024 .000 .020 .020 .313 − .017 .028 .555 .020 .021 .354
T3 BPT regressed on
T2 BPT .431 .050 .000 .414 .044 .000 .619 .082 < .001 .625 .065 < .001
T2 ASC .057 .045 .206 − .031 .046 .494 .078 .059 .188 .055 .052 .291
T2 Math Gr. .012 .026 .647 − .046 .026 .083
T2 Lit. Gr. − .018 .029 .540 .008 .026 .774 .025 .031 .427 .083 .031 .006
Fluid reas. − .016 .025 .535 .011 .028 .678
Rec. voc. − .019 .029 .502 .048 .035 .165
Reading flu. − .001 .031 .982 − .006 .027 .812
Migration .019 .025 .445 − .014 .023 .554 − .001 .025 .982 .008 .026 .767
T. of school .072 .022 .001 .002 .023 .914 .059 .025 .021 .001 .025 .972
SES .064 .024 .008 .023 .023 .318 − .01 .03 .735 .018 .029 .523
T3 ASC regressed on
T2 BPT .008 .035 .828 − .032 .032 .318 .108 .048 .023 .035 .044 .431
T2 ASC .752 .050 .000 .631 .048 .000 .605 .057 < .001 .525 .057 < .001
T2 Math Gr. − .049 .023 .034 − .023 .021 .277
T2 Lit. Gr. .019 .024 .428 .001 .022 .976 − .002 .032 .949 .005 .029 .861
Fluid reas. − .013 .022 .554 .005 .023 .821
Rec. voc. .094 .027 .001 .133 .031 < .001
Reading flu. .038 .030 .196 .053 .026 .042
Migration − .009 .020 .676 .002 .020 .933 − .024 .023 .294 .022 .024 .349
T. of school − .011 .019 .577 − .002 .020 .926 .021 .021 .318 − .012 .021 .575
SES .073 .022 .001 .029 .020 .151 .034 .027 .201 − .016 .026 .538
  1. ASC academic self-concept (Quellenberg 2009; Fischer et al. 2017). BSPT belief about one’s own perspective-taking (Davis 1980). Math Gr. math grades., Lit. Gr. literature grades., Migration ethnic background (out of Germany coded as 1, German background coded as 0), T. of school type of school, SES socio-economic status (Study 2: Fluid reas. fluid reasoning (Weiß 2006), Rec. voc. receptive vocabulary (Weiß 2006), Reading flu. reading fluency (Auer et al. 2011). The nested data structure (students within school classes) was considered at the individual level (Oberski 2014)