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Table 1 Correlations between academic self-concept, perspective-taking, school achievement, cognitive abilities, and socio-economic status at time 1

From: School students’ beliefs about abilities and perspective-taking over time

Study 1: variable 1 2 3 4 5   
1. Academic self-concept .21*** − .16*** − .21*** .003   
2. Perspective-taking .17*** − .03*** − .02 − .02   
3. School grades in literature class −.19** − .04 .46*** − .20***   
4. School grades in math class − .23*** .05*    − .15***   
5. Socio-economic status .05 .05*     
Study 1: variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1. Academic self-concept in reading .26*** − .27*** .08** .37*** .38*** .14***
2. Perspective-taking .32*** − .14*** − .03 .11*** .07* .06
3. School grades in literature class − .37*** − .12** − .18*** − .36*** − .37*** − .26***
4. Fluid reasoning .14*** .09* − .22*** .30*** .18*** .04
5. Receptive vocabulary .35*** .08* − .44*** .28*** .52*** .23***
6. Reading fluency .43*** .14*** − .43*** .20*** .55*** .14***
7. Socio-economic status .20*** .03 − .31*** .13*** .31*** .24***
  1. Academic self-concept (Quellenberg 2009; Fischer et al. 2017). Belief about one’s own perspective-taking (Davis 1980). Study 1: Correlation coefficients below the diagonal are for girls in fifth grade (Time 1); values above the diagonal are for boys (Time 1). Variables representing cognitive abilities were not provided in the scientific use file (see Quellenberg 2009, for all large-scale variables). Study 2: Fluid reasoning and receptive vocabulary (Weiß 2006). Reading fluency (Auer et al. 2011). Values below the diagonal are for girls from the beginning of fifth grade (Time 1); values above the diagonal are correlation coefficients for boys (Time 1). **p < .01, ***p < .001