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Fig. 2 | Large-scale Assessments in Education

Fig. 2

From: School students’ beliefs about abilities and perspective-taking over time

Fig. 2

Study 2: Model scheme of the structure equation model with cross-lags outlined over the measurement points T1 = Time 1, T2 = Time 2 and T3 = Time 3. Girls’ (before the slash)/boys’ (after the slash) ASC = academic self-concept (Fischer et al. 2017 and BPT = belief about one’s own perspective-taking (Davis 1980) were specified as latent variables (indicators and residuals are not depicted). Relevant factors were included as manifest variables, i.e., fluid reasoning and receptive vocabulary (Weiß 2006), reading fluency (Auer et al. 2011), migration = ethnic background (out of Germany coded as 1, German background coded as 0), SES = socio-economic status, type of school, and school grades in literature class. *p < .05

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