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Table 8 Average paperTIMSS-eTIMSS difference scores by student subgroups—fourth grade

From: The TIMSS 2019 Item Equivalence Study: examining mode effects for computer-based assessment and implications for measuring trends

Subgroup Valid cases Average percent of students Average difference score
Mathematics Science
Books in the home
 0–10 books 1947 12 (0.4) 12 (1.4) 10 (1.7)
 11–25 books 4180 26 (0.5) 13 (0.8) 7 (0.9)
 26–100 books 5411 33 (0.4) 15 (0.7) 9 (0.7)
 101–200 books 2811 17 (0.4) 16 (0.9) 7 (0.9)
 More than 200 books 2201 13 (0.3) 15 (1.1) 8 (1.0)
Gender
 Girls 8627 52 (3.0) 15 (0.8) 7 (0.6)
 Boys 8142 49 (3.0) 13 (0.8) 9 (0.8)
Digital self-efficacy
 Low 1094 7 (0.3) 17 (1.7) 11 (2.0)
 Medium 4926 30 (0.4) 14 (0.9) 7 (0.9)
 High 10,455 63 (0.6) 14 (0.7) 8 (0.6)
  1. () Standard errors appear in parentheses. Because of rounding some results may appear inconsistent