Skip to main content


Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Fig. 3 | Large-scale Assessments in Education

Fig. 3

From: The TIMSS 2019 Item Equivalence Study: examining mode effects for computer-based assessment and implications for measuring trends

Fig. 3

Country distribution of mathematics and science score mode effects. Bars reflect average difference between paperTIMSS and eTIMSS scores, paired by country for mathematics and science. Negative values indicate that performance on eTIMSS was higher than performance on paperTIMSS, on average. Countries are ordered by size of average difference across mathematics and science. Errors bars represent 95% confidence intervals for estimated country difference scores

Back to article page