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Table 5 Regression coefficients for Abu Dhabi 4th grade students by international achievement benchmark

From: The role of reading motivation, self-efficacy, and home influence in students’ literacy achievement: a preliminary examination of fourth graders in Abu Dhabi

Variable Assessment in Arabic Assessment in English
400–
(N = 849)
400–475
(N = 548)
475–550
(N = 442)
550–625
(N = 105)
400–
(N = 261)
400–475
(N = 305)
475–550
(N = 363)
550–625
(N = 164)
B T B T B T B T B T B T B T B T
Constant 185.97 5.96** 366.56 7.96** 440.94 10.26** 525.81 5.98** 208.92 3.54** 386.34 6.52** 447.60 7.79** 539.14 9.93
Time parent spent on reading at home 3.90 1.45 3.34 1.57 2.05 .89 7.10 1.19 − 1.64 − .23 4.48 1.17 .40 .11 − .73 − .17
Number of books at home 3.56 1.90* 2.57 1.04 2.01 .88 − 1.16 .33 − 1.88 − .34 2.13 .97 5.24 1.57 5.83 1.44
Parent expectation of child’s education 5.71 2.93** 2.69 1.04 .63 .17 − .66 − .08 4.40 1.20 6.68 1.40 2.25 .59 2.28 .37
Literacy level when starting school 12.64 3.66** 5.21 1.11 4.99 1.16 9.10 1.54 5.59 .72 − 4.07 − .66 − 1.84 − .49 2.12 .33
Parent involvement in learning 4.32 .73 − 4.31 − 74 − 5.33 − 1.01 − 2.04 − .24 17.15 1.10 − 1.93 − .24 6.35 1.05 − 4.30 − .54
Intrinsic reading motivation − 1.32 − .28 − 3.18 − .68 2.61 .57 − 18.43 − 1.69* 3.55 .34 3.88 .82 − 1.05 − .19 10.23 2.00*
Student self-efficacy in reading 13.13 3.67** 4.43 1.23 7.50 2.21* 5.84 .82 9.48 2.22* .70 .19 5.13 .97 − 1.56 − .22
Extrinsic reading motivation 10.44 1.44 9.88 1.09 4.83 .63 13.57 .70 5.11 .36 1.81 .22 1.08 .14 − 3.47 − .31
Student gender − 17.58 − 2.72** − 5.32 − .73 − 1.30 − .19 − 3.86 − .50 − 6.61 − .57 − 4.98 − 1.03 − 3.22 − .71 − 2.38 − .28
  1. ** Significant at .01; * Significant at .05
  2. The 625 and above benchmark category was omitted due to a small number of cases (3 in Arabic assessment and 43 in English assessment)