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Table 9 Country-level regressions of internal homogeneity on education system characteristics; within-group standard deviations adjusted for a richer set of covariates than in main analysis (see the “Robustness checks” section for details)

From: Measuring the signaling value of educational degrees: secondary education systems and the internal homogeneity of educational groups

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6 Model 7 Model 8
Between-school resource inequality − 0.537* (0.163)        − 0.339+ (0.150)
External differentiation (tracking)   0.617* (0.172)     0.669* (0.274)   0.607* (0.225)
Vocational orientation    0.379+ (0.207)    − 0.077 (0.290)   − 0.106 (0.201)
Standardization of input     − 0.318 (0.259)    − 0.324 (0.290) − 0.437* (0.149)
Standardization of output      − 0.157 (0.587)   − 0.206 (0.650) − 0.062 (0.364)
Intercept 0.090 (0.192) 0.090 (0.178) 0.090 (0.217) 0.090 (0.229) 0.195 (0.478) 0.090 (0.190) 0.228 (0.545) 0.131 (0.280)
N 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18
R2 0.345 0.458 0.173 0.122 0.007 0.466 0.136 0.800
R2 (adjusted) 0.304 0.423 0.124 0.071 − 0.052 0.393 0.025 0.715
  1. Heteroskedasticity-consistent (HC3) standard errors in parentheses
  2. +p < 0.1; * p < 0.05 (two-tailed tests)