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Table 8 Country-level regressions of internal homogeneity on education system characteristics; homogeneity measure based on respondents aged 16−54 rather than 20−34

From: Measuring the signaling value of educational degrees: secondary education systems and the internal homogeneity of educational groups

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6 Model 7 Model 8
Between-school resource inequality − 0.341+ (0.175)        − 0.137 (0.186)
External differentiation (tracking)   0.534* (0.227)     0.584 (0.373)   0.587 (0.387)
Vocational orientation    0.324 (0.248)    − 0.074 (0.372)   − 0.046 (0.309)
Standardization of input     − 0.365 (0.315)    − 0.362 (0.330) − 0.470+(0.221)
Standardization of output      0.145 (0.551)   0.089 (0.624) 0.152 (0.491)
Intercept 0.088 (0.239) 0.088 (0.222) 0.088 (0.248) 0.088 (0.252) − 0.008 (0.415) 0.088 (0.240) 0.029 (0.485) − 0.013 (0.371)
N 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18
R2 0.118 0.289 0.107 0.135 0.004 0.293 0.137 0.532
R2 (adjusted) 0.063 0.245 0.052 0.082 − 0.058 0.199 0.023 0.336
  1. Heteroskedasticity-consistent (HC3) standard errors in parentheses
  2. +p < 0.1; * p < 0.05 (two-tailed tests)