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Table 9 Logistic Regressions for Q1 Analyses

From: How long is the shadow? The relationships of family background to selected adult outcomes: results from PIAAC

Variable Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
B Sig. B Sig. B Sig.
AUT
 Basic demo
  Female 1.49 0.00 1.45 0.00 1.45 0.00
  Age 25–34 0.35 0.01 0.39 0.01 0.44 0.00
  Age 35–44 0.21 0.15 0.23 0.11 0.24 0.09
  ParEd = below HS 0.35 0.08 0.24 0.25 0.12 0.56
  ParEd = HS 0.01 0.94 − 0.02 0.90 − 0.10 0.59
  ≤ 25 books at home 0.23 0.13 0.02 0.91 − 0.13 0.39
  26–100 books at home 0.20 0.17 0.10 0.48 0.03 0.83
Cognitive Skills
  Std. (Lit + Num)    − 0.28 0.00 − 0.16 0.04
Education Attainment
  EDATT = below HS      1.08 0.00
  EDATT = HS      0.69 0.00
  EDATT = some college      0.18 0.36
  Reference group − 2.71 0.00 − 2.59 0.00 − 3.03 0.00
  Observation 2581 2581 2581
BEL
Basic demo
 Female 1.21 0.00 1.16 0.00 1.39 0.00
 Age 25–34 0.58 0.00 0.77 0.00 0.76 0.00
 Age 35–44 0.26 0.01 0.35 0.00 0.35 0.00
 ParEd = below HS 0.53 0.00 0.20 0.21 − 0.10 0.53
 ParEd = HS 0.37 0.00 0.24 0.05 0.07 0.57
 ≤ 25 books at home 0.58 0.00 0.30 0.01 0.15 0.22
 26–100 books at home 0.07 0.52 − 0.04 0.74 − 0.09 0.42
Cognitive Skills
 Std. (Lit + Num)    − 0.67 0.00 − 0.44 0.00
Education Attainment
 EDATT = below HS      1.58 0.00
 EDATT = HS      1.24 0.00
 EDATT = some college      0.39 0.01
 Reference group − 1.85 0.00 − 1.55 0.00 − 2.21 0.00
 Observation 2288 2288 2286
CAN
Basic demo
 Female 0.75 0.00 0.72 0.00 0.79 0.00
 Age 25–34 0.41 0.04 0.46 0.02 0.46 0.02
 Age 35–44 − 0.15 0.45 − 0.11 0.56 − 0.08 0.67
 ParEd = below HS 0.09 0.67 0.00 0.99 − 0.14 0.53
 ParEd = HS − 0.15 0.43 − 0.18 0.35 − 0.29 0.14
 ≤ 25 books at home − 0.13 0.56 − 0.25 0.25 − 0.27 0.21
 26–100 books at home − 0.58 0.00 − 0.63 0.00 − 0.66 0.00
Cognitive Skills
 Std. (Lit + Num)    − 0.22 0.01 − 0.12 0.19
Education Attainment
 EDATT = below HS      0.69 0.05
 EDATT = HS      0.73 0.00
 EDATT = some college      0.45 0.01
 Reference group − 3.21 0.00 − 3.10 0.00 − 3.46 0.00
 Observation 11,620 11,620 11,612
CZE
Basic demo
 Female 1.00 0.00 0.96 0.00 1.01 0.00
 Age 25–34 − 0.30 0.18 − 0.15 0.54 − 0.12 0.63
 Age 35–44 0.10 0.68 0.16 0.50 0.17 0.50
 ParEd = Below HS 1.25 0.00 1.02 0.00 0.73 0.02
 ParEd = HS 0.62 0.01 0.50 0.03 0.28 0.25
 ≤ 25 books at home 0.72 0.01 0.38 0.19 0.35 0.24
 26–100 books at home 0.50 0.01 0.38 0.04 0.30 0.10
Cognitive Skills
 Std. (Lit + Num)    − 0.38 0.00 − 0.28 0.02
Education Attainment
 EDATT = below HS      0.95 0.02
 EDATT = HS      0.81 0.02
 EDATT = some college      0.43 0.31
 Reference group − 2.12 0.00 − 2.01 0.00 − 2.48 0.00
 Observation 2080 2080 2079
DEN
Basic demo
 Female 0.70 0.00 0.69 0.00 0.80 0.00
 Age 25–34 0.69 0.00 0.75 0.00 0.84 0.00
 Age 35–44 0.13 0.31 0.20 0.11 0.25 0.05
 ParEd = Below HS 0.01 0.96 − 0.18 0.26 − 0.38 0.02
 ParEd = HS − 0.04 0.80 − 0.17 0.24 − 0.28 0.05
 ≤ 25 books at home 0.61 0.00 0.30 0.06 0.19 0.25
 26–100 books at home 0.29 0.05 0.13 0.36 0.05 0.72
Cognitive Skills
 Std. (Lit + Num)    − 0.62 0.00 − 0.49 0.00
Education Attainment
 EDATT = below HS      1.14 0.00
 EDATT = HS      0.44 0.00
 EDATT = some college      − 0.09 0.51
 Reference group − 2.34 0.00 − 2.14 0.00 − 2.46 0.00
 Observation 3084 3084 3082
DEU
Basic demo
 Female 1.63 0.00 1.60 0.00 1.67 0.00
 Age 25–34 0.29 0.05 0.40 0.01 0.38 0.01
 Age 35–44 − 0.18 0.14 − 0.06 0.65 − 0.12 0.36
 ParEd = below HS 0.61 0.01 0.28 0.23 − 0.02 0.92
 ParEd = HS 0.16 0.14 0.06 0.58 − 0.15 0.18
 ≤ 25 books at home 0.53 0.00 0.17 0.33 0.01 0.94
 26–100 books at home 0.18 0.14 0.01 0.92 − 0.10 0.45
Cognitive Skills
 Std. (Lit + Num)    − 0.51 0.00 − 0.31 0.00
Education Attainment
 EDATT = below HS      1.82 0.00
 EDATT = HS      1.13 0.00
 EDATT = some college      0.69 0.00
 Reference group − 2.39 0.00 − 2.24 0.00 − 2.91 0.00
 Observation 2487 2487 2487
ESP
Basic demo
 Female 1.28 0.00 1.23 0.00 1.51 0.00
 Age 25–34 0.67 0.00 0.68 0.00 0.64 0.00
 Age 35–44 0.27 0.04 0.33 0.01 0.34 0.01
 ParEd = below HS 0.09 0.56 − 0.04 0.82 − 0.44 0.01
 ParEd = HS − 0.35 0.06 − 0.43 0.03 − 0.68 0.00
 ≤ 25 books at home 0.99 0.00 0.69 0.00 0.45 0.00
 26–100 books at home 0.41 0.01 0.31 0.03 0.23 0.11
Cognitive Skills
 Std. (Lit + Num)    − 0.45 0.00 − 0.20 0.01
Education Attainment
 EDATT = below HS      1.62 0.00
 EDATT = HS      1.31 0.00
 EDATT = some college      0.97 0.00
 Reference group − 2.24 0.00 − 1.93 0.00 − 2.69 0.00
 Observation 2235 2235 2234
EST
Basic demo
 Female 0.83 0.00 0.82 0.00 0.96 0.00
 Age 25–34 − 0.47 0.00 − 0.41 0.00 − 0.53 0.00
 Age 35–44 −0.18 0.12 − 0.18 0.12 − 0.26 0.03
 ParEd = below HS 0.47 0.00 0.36 0.01 0.14 0.33
 ParEd = HS 0.07 0.62 − 0.01 0.94 − 0.13 0.35
 ≤ 25 Books at home 0.42 0.01 0.17 0.34 0.07 0.68
 26–100 books at home 0.10 0.42 − 0.06 0.65 − 0.12 0.35
Cognitive Skills
 Std. (Lit + Num)    − 0.34 0.00 − 0.20 0.00
Education Attainment
 EDATT = below HS      1.19 0.00
 EDATT = HS      0.93 0.00
 EDATT = some college      0.58 0.00
 Reference group − 1.83 0.00 − 1.71 0.00 − 2.24 0.00
 Observation 2956 2956 2955
FIN
Basic demo
 Female 1.10 0.00 1.13 0.00 1.49 0.00
 Age 25–34 0.80 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.02 0.00
 Age 35–44 0.19 0.15 0.26 0.04 0.32 0.01
 ParEd = below HS 0.09 0.53 − 0.09 0.57 − 0.33 0.04
 ParEd = HS 0.02 0.89 − 0.12 0.39 − 0.33 0.03
 ≤ 25 books at home 0.83 0.00 0.53 0.00 0.37 0.02
 26–100 books at home 0.29 0.00 0.17 0.06 0.06 0.56
Cognitive Skills
 Std. (Lit + Num)    − 0.57 0.00 − 0.36 0.00
Education Attainment
 EDATT = below HS      1.64 0.00
 EDATT = HS      1.53 0.00
 EDATT = some college      0.68 0.00
 Reference group − 1.89 0.00 − 1.79 0.00 − 2.64 0.00
 Observation 2528 2528 2528
FRA
Basic demo
 Female 1.04 0.00 1.04 0.00 1.11 0.00
 Age 25–34 − 0.17 0.33 0.00 0.99 0.06 0.73
 Age 35–44 0.03 0.83 0.10 0.47 0.16 0.22
 ParEd = below HS 0.32 0.10 0.06 0.76 − 0.12 0.57
 ParEd = HS 0.27 0.19 0.13 0.53 0.01 0.94
 ≤ 25 books at home 0.46 0.00 0.12 0.47 0.01 0.96
 26–100 books at home − 0.06 0.65 − 0.16 0.28 − 0.21 0.16
Cognitive Skills
 Std. (Lit + Num)    − 0.52 0.00 − 0.39 0.00
Education Attainment
 EDATT = below HS      0.89 0.00
 EDATT = HS      0.58 0.00
 EDATT = some college      0.09 0.63
 Reference group − 2.98 0.00 − 2.76 0.00 − 3.10 0.00
 Observation 2610 2610 2609
GBR
Basic demo
 Female 1.48 0.00 1.44 0.00 1.49 0.00
 Age 25–34 0.57 0.00 0.59 0.00 0.69 0.00
 Age 35–44 0.44 0.01 0.50 0.00 0.56 0.00
 ParEd = below HS 0.70 0.00 0.39 0.05 0.16 0.46
 ParEd = HS 0.21 0.22 0.09 0.63 − 0.08 0.71
 ≤ 25 books at home 0.48 0.02 0.16 0.44 0.12 0.55
 26–100 books at home 0.27 0.13 0.16 0.38 0.11 0.56
Cognitive Skills
 Std. (Lit + Num)    − 0.52 0.00 − 0.43 0.00
Education Attainment
 EDATT = Below HS      0.97 0.00
 EDATT = HS      0.56 0.01
 EDATT = some college      0.40 0.13
 Reference group − 3.02 0.00 − 2.70 0.00 − 3.05 0.00
 Observation 3485 3485 3476
IRL
Basic demo
 Female 0.95 0.00 0.90 0.00 1.09 0.00
 Age 25–34 − 0.24 0.17 − 0.17 0.31 0.00 0.99
 Age 35–44 − 0.05 0.73 0.02 0.92 0.10 0.54
 ParEd = Below HS 0.52 0.02 0.34 0.14 0.03 0.90
 ParEd = HS 0.14 0.53 0.05 0.80 − 0.09 0.66
 ≤ 25 books at home 0.56 0.01 0.27 0.22 0.06 0.79
 26–100 books at home − 0.10 0.58 − 0.17 0.36 − 0.25 0.17
Cognitive Skills
 Std. (Lit + Num)    − 0.52 0.00 − 0.33 0.00
Education Attainment
 EDATT = below HS      1.85 0.00
 EDATT = HS      0.87 0.00
 EDATT = some college      1.04 0.00
 Reference group − 2.49 0.00 − 2.28 0.00 − 3.11 0.00
 Observation 2506 2506 2506
ITA
Basic demo
 Female 0.94 0.00 0.94 0.00 1.05 0.00
 Age 25–34 0.52 0.00 0.59 0.00 0.68 0.00
 Age 35–44 − 0.04 0.81 − 0.02 0.89 0.00 0.99
 ParEd = below HS 0.36 0.26 0.16 0.63 − 0.08 0.80
 ParEd = HS − 0.24 0.48 − 0.30 0.40 − 0.40 0.25
 ≤ 25 books at home 0.25 0.21 − 0.10 0.60 − 0.27 0.18
 26–100 books at home − 0.02 0.91 − 0.17 0.40 − 0.23 0.27
Cognitive Skills
 Std. (Lit + Num)    − 0.46 0.00 − 0.38 0.00
Education Attainment
 EDATT = below HS      0.84 0.00
 EDATT = HS      0.31 0.11
 EDATT = some college      0.05 0.93
 Reference group − 2.08 0.00 − 1.78 0.00 − 2.05 0.00
 Observation 1952 1952 1952
JPN
Basic demo
 Female 2.40 0.00 2.38 0.00 2.40 0.00
 Age 25–34 0.21 0.15 0.30 0.03 0.30 0.05
 Age 35–44 − 0.08 0.49 − 0.03 0.80 − 0.09 0.46
 ParEd = below HS 0.44 0.01 0.33 0.07 0.03 0.84
 ParEd = HS 0.35 0.01 0.28 0.03 0.08 0.53
 ≤ 25 Books at Home 0.56 0.00 0.30 0.03 0.13 0.34
 26–100 books at home 0.26 0.03 0.14 0.25 0.04 0.74
Cognitive Skills
 Std. (Lit + Num)    − 0.44 0.00 − 0.28 0.00
Education Attainment
 EDATT = below HS      1.43 0.00
 EDATT = HS      1.08 0.00
 EDATT = some college      0.75 0.00
 Reference group − 2.45 0.00 − 2.30 0.00 − 2.77 0.00
 Observation 2358 2358 2357
KOR
Basic demo
 Female 1.77 0.00 1.74 0.00 1.72 0.00
 Age 25–34 − 0.46 0.00 − 0.28 0.03 − 0.12 0.41
 Age 35–44 − 0.43 0.00 − 0.31 0.01 − 0.23 0.06
 ParEd = Below HS 0.41 0.00 0.28 0.04 0.03 0.82
 ParEd = HS 0.29 0.05 0.22 0.14 0.07 0.66
 ≤ 25 books at home 0.41 0.00 0.21 0.13 0.00 0.97
 26–100 books at home 0.05 0.69 − 0.05 0.72 − 0.10 0.42
Cognitive Skills
 Std. (Lit + Num)    − 0.36 0.00 − 0.22 0.00
Education Attainment
 EDATT = Below HS      1.29 0.00
 EDATT = HS      0.97 0.00
 EDATT = some college      0.42 0.01
 Reference group − 2.10 0.00 − 1.99 0.00 − 2.43 0.00
 Observation 3208 3208 3208
NLD
Basic demo
 Female 1.88 0.00 1.82 0.00 1.88 0.00
 Age 25–34 0.07 0.69 0.19 0.31 0.24 0.20
 Age 35–44 0.10 0.52 0.18 0.26 0.21 0.19
 ParEd = Below HS 0.17 0.40 0.02 0.91 − 0.16 0.49
 ParEd = HS 0.03 0.90 − 0.06 0.80 − 0.13 0.56
 ≤ 25 books at home 0.56 0.00 0.25 0.17 0.17 0.36
 26–100 books at home 0.41 0.01 0.30 0.06 0.28 0.09
Cognitive Skills
 Std. (Lit + Num)    − 0.47 0.00 − 0.29 0.00
Education Attainment
 EDATT = below HS      1.08 0.00
 EDATT = HS      0.50 0.03
 EDATT = some college      − 0.37 0.41
 Reference group − 3.59 0.00 − 3.44 0.00 − 3.82 0.00
 Observation 2376 2376 2375
NOR
Basic demo
 Female 1.31 0.00 1.30 0.00 1.53 0.00
 Age 25–34 0.76 0.00 0.74 0.00 0.85 0.00
 Age 35–44 0.12 0.34 0.14 0.27 0.26 0.05
 ParEd = below HS 0.33 0.03 0.09 0.59 − 0.14 0.42
 ParEd = HS 0.07 0.60 − 0.04 0.78 − 0.19 0.17
 ≤ 25 books at home 1.04 0.00 0.56 0.00 0.45 0.00
 26–100 books at home 0.38 0.00 0.18 0.13 0.05 0.67
Cognitive Skills
 Std. (Lit + Num)    − 0.60 0.00 − 0.45 0.00
Education Attainment
 EDATT = below HS      1.57 0.00
 EDATT = HS      1.15 0.00
 EDATT = some college      1.01 0.00
 Reference group − 2.62 0.00 − 2.45 0.00 − 3.28 0.00
 Observation 2617 2617 2616
POL
Basic demo
 Female 0.71 0.00 0.76 0.00 1.04 0.00
 Age 25–34 0.26 0.11 0.35 0.04 0.55 0.00
 Age 35–44 0.14 0.42 0.16 0.36 0.22 0.21
 ParEd = below HS 0.73 0.00 0.62 0.02 0.13 0.64
 ParEd = HS 0.42 0.04 0.34 0.11 − 0.05 0.85
 ≤ 25 books at home 1.10 0.00 0.79 0.00 0.39 0.01
 26–100 books at home 0.51 0.00 0.33 0.04 0.14 0.40
Cognitive Skills
 Std. (Lit + Num)    − 0.47 0.00 − 0.29 0.00
Education Attainment
 EDATT = below HS      2.17 0.00
 EDATT = HS      1.45 0.00
 EDATT = some college      1.13 0.00
 Reference group − 2.53 0.00 − 2.38 0.00 − 3.07 0.00
 Observation 2351 2351 2351
SVK
Basic demo
 Female 1.20 0.00 1.20 0.00 1.32 0.00
 Age 25–34 0.11 0.37 0.11 0.37 0.14 0.28
 Age 35–44 0.03 0.82 0.05 0.66 0.05 0.67
 ParEd = below HS 1.61 0.00 1.43 0.00 1.00 0.00
 ParEd = HS 0.94 0.00 0.87 0.00 0.55 0.00
 ≤ 25 books at home 0.74 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.26 0.15
 26–100 books at home 0.39 0.00 0.29 0.01 0.15 0.21
Cognitive Skills
 Std. (Lit + Num)    − 0.39 0.00 − 0.27 0.00
Education Attainment
 EDATT = below HS      1.97 0.00
 EDATT = HS (or some college)      1.03 0.00
 Reference group − 1.48 0.00 − 1.22 0.00 − 1.70 0.00
 Observation 2224 2224 2224
SWE
Basic demo
 Female 0.76 0.00 0.74 0.00 0.85 0.00
 Age 25–34 0.83 0.00 0.86 0.00 0.91 0.00
 Age 35–44 0.29 0.18 0.32 0.15 0.36 0.10
 ParEd = below HS 0.06 0.74 − 0.03 0.86 − 0.17 0.37
 ParEd = HS − 0.31 0.15 − 0.34 0.11 − 0.48 0.03
 ≤ 25 books at home 0.52 0.04 0.18 0.50 0.18 0.48
 26–100 books at home − 0.21 0.26 − 0.41 0.03 − 0.44 0.02
Cognitive Skills
 Std. (Lit + Num)    − 0.39 0.00 − 0.31 0.00
Education Attainment
 EDATT = below HS      0.73 0.01
 EDATT = HS      0.88 0.00
 EDATT = some college      0.97 0.00
 Reference group − 2.84 0.00 − 2.70 0.00 − 3.37 0.00
 Observation 2107 2107 2107
USA
Basic demo
 Female 0.72 0.00 0.69 0.00 0.81 0.00
 Age 25–34 0.16 0.35 0.15 0.38 0.13 0.47
 Age 35–44 − 0.01 0.95 0.00 0.99 0.00 0.99
 ParEd = below HS 0.75 0.00 0.44 0.05 0.24 0.29
 ParEd = HS 0.37 0.02 0.30 0.08 0.12 0.52
 ≤ 25 books at home − 0.05 0.82 − 0.28 0.24 − 0.49 0.03
 26–100 books at home − 0.09 0.66 − 0.18 0.40 − 0.29 0.20
Cognitive Skills
 Std. (Lit + Num)    − 0.35 0.00 − 0.13 0.27
Education Attainment
 EDATT = below HS      1.71 0.00
 EDATT = HS      1.42 0.00
 EDATT = some college      1.35 0.00
 Reference group − 2.69 0.00 − 2.50 0.00 − 3.40 0.00
 Observation 2162 2162 2162
  1. Model 1 = Gender, age, ParEd, # of books at home
  2. Model 2 = M1 + Cognitive Skill (standardized Literacy & Numeracy score)
  3. Model 3 = M2 + Education Attainment
  4. Reference Group = Male, age 45–54, Pared = At least one BA+, 101 books or more, EDATT = BA+