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Table 7 Results of multi-group regression analyses of the impact of students’ characteristics on ‘Students’ Attitude Toward Reading’ in a cross-country comparison (unstandardized betas, significant effects in italic)

From: Promoting reading attitudes of girls and boys: a new challenge for educational policy? Multi-group analyses across four European countries

  France Germany Italy Netherlands
Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys
Intercept .00 − .36 (.21) .00 − .66 (.16) .00 − .77 (.13) .00 − .74 (.24)
b SE b SE b SE b SE
Student and home characteristics
 Spoken test language at home − .01 (.08) − .01 (.07) .11 (.10) − .11 (.10) .03 (.09) .08 (.07) .05 (.12) .02 (.10)
 Books at home .13 (.04) .20 (.04) .33 (.05) .21 (.04) .07 (.04) .10 (.04) .17 (.05) .06 (.04)
 Books for children at home .00 (.05) .02 (.05) .06 (.05) .18 (.04) .08 (.04) .04 (.04) .07 (.05) .10 (.05)
 Highest parental educational status .06 (.04) .05 (.04) .06 (.04) .00 (.04) − .01 (.04) .00 (.03) .06 (.04) − .02 (.04)
 Parents like reading .17 (.04) .10 (.04) .02 (.05) .11 (.04) .05 (.04) − .02 (.04) .08 (.04) .10 (.04)
 Early literacy activities .08 (.04) .08 (.04) .04 (.04) − .01 (.04) .11 (.04) .02 (.03) .06 (.04) .06 (.04)
 Reading outside school .43 (.03) .50 (.05) .28 (.04) .37 (.04) .28 (.04) .31 (.04) .38 (.04) .34 (.05)
 Borrow books from a library .11 (.11) .26 (.09) .24 (.10) .35 (.09) .25 (.09) .24 (.07) .11 (.11) .44 (.10)
 Years teaching .00 (.04) .03 (.04) − .02 (.04) .08 (.04) .01 (.04) .03 (.04) − .01 (.05) .01 (.04)
 Female sex − .08 (.13) − .12 (.15) − .15 (.15) .11 (.14) − .18 (.18) − .05 (.23) − .02 (.13) − .12 (.10)
 Software for Reading Instruction .03 (.01) .02 (.02) − .00 (.02) .03 (.02) .01 (.02) .01 (.02) − .01 (.01) − .01 (.02)
 Time spent on reading instruction/activities .07 (.04) − .03 (.04) .06 (.04) .03 (.04) .01 (.04) .04 (.04) .06 (.04) .01 (.03)
 Classroom library .03 (.04) − .02 (.04) .06 (.04) .01 (.04) .03 (.04) .07 (.03) .11 (.03) − .01 (.02)
 School library .09 (.09) − .04 (.09) − .15 (.10) − .15 (.09) − .13 (.10) − .16 (.10) .19 (.10) .00 (.12)
 R2 .27 .27 .24 .31 .14 .17 .23 .26
 Χ2 170.52 146.277 167.596 118.272
 Df 96 96 60 60
 p < .001 < .001 < .001 < .001
 RMSEA .02 .02 .03 .03
 CFI .98 .99 .98 .99
 TLI .97 .99 .98 .99
 WRMR 1.31 1.10 1.54 1.27