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Table 5 Estimated gender differences by country in ‘Students’ Attitude Toward Reading’ with and without considering strict measurement equivalence (ME) (reference group is girls)

From: Promoting reading attitudes of girls and boys: a new challenge for educational policy? Multi-group analyses across four European countries

  Basic model Strict MI
∆M (SE) p < ∆M (SE) p <
France − .21 (.08) .01 − .43 (.05) .001
Germany − .57 (.07) .001 − .62 (.05) .001
Italy − .57 (.07) .001 − .62 (.05) .001
Netherlands − .64 (.06) .001 − .58 (.05) .001