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Table 2 Descriptives of students’ (home) characteristics (by country)

From: Promoting reading attitudes of girls and boys: a new challenge for educational policy? Multi-group analyses across four European countries

Variable Country
Germany France Italy Netherlands
M SE M SE M SE M SE
Spoken test language at home .80 .01 .78 .01 .79 .01 .78 .01
Books at home*** 3.17 .04 3.10 .03 2.74 .03 2.97 .04
Books for children at home*** 3.46 .04 3.29 .04 2.68 .03 3.29 .04
Highest parental educational status*** 3.47 .04 3.67 .04 3.25 .03 3.76 .04
Parents like reading *** 10.11 .06 9.51 .04 9.81 .05 10.42 .06
Early literacy activities before beginning primary school *** 10.17 .03 9.96 .03 10.47 .03 10.20 .03
Reading outside school*** 2.87 .02 3.06 .02 3.10 .01 3.25 .02
Attended preschool .99 .00 .99 .00 .99 .00 .97 .00
Borrow books from a library*** .75 .01 .84 .01 .71 .01 .83 .01
  1. IDB-analyser: weight by student weight (tot weight)
  2. p ≤ .05; ** p ≤ .01; *** p ≤ .001 (results from ANOVAs)