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Table 13 Comparison of the unidimensional and the two-factor Grit models

From: Personality, cognitive skills and life outcomes: evidence from the Polish follow-up study to PIAAC

  1—LF participation 2—Employability 3—Wages 4—Job satisfaction
(1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2)
Grit 0.042*   0.005   − 0.039   0.132***  
Perseverance of effort   0.017   0.059   − 0.013   0.169***
Consistency of interest   0.033   − 0.065   − 0.034   − 0.035
Observations 4454 4454 3356 3356 2059 2059 2507 2507
R 2 0.289 0.289 0.033 0.036 0.381 0.381 0.037 0.041
  5—Health 6—Trust 7—Life satisfaction 8—Education
(1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2)
Grit 0.124***   − 0.087***   0.234***   0.082***  
Perseverance of effort   0.096***   − 0.091***   0.191***   0.027
Consistency of interest   0.041   − 0.000   0.066*   0.071**
Observations 4454 4454 4454 4454 4454 4454 4355 4355
R 2 0.326 0.326 0.051 0.052 0.124 0.124 0.392 0.393
  1. p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001. (1)—The unidimensional model of Grit. (2)—two-factor model of Grit. Control variables: age, age squared, gender, years of education (outcomes 1–7), 1-digit ISCO (outcomes 3, 4), employment status (outcomes 5–7), parents education (outcome 8). Dependent variables, numeracy and non-cognitive skills are standardised