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Table 3 Explanation of test-taking disengagement in numeracy (N = 13,947)

From: Conditioning factors of test-taking engagement in PIAAC: an exploratory IRT modelling approach considering person and item characteristics

Predictor Model 0 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Estimate (SE) Estimate (SE) Estimate (SE) Estimate (SE)
Intercept − 15.91*** (0.26) − 15.71*** (0.42) − 16.03*** (0.29) − 15.79*** (0.43)
Educational attainment
 High school    − 0.46 (0.33)    − 0.48 (0.33)
 Above high school    − 0.78* (0.35)    − 0.84* (0.35)
Language (test language not same as native language)    0.65* (0.26)    0.69** (0.26)
Score cognitive pre-test    − 0.52*** (0.13)    − 0.43** (0.14)
Gender (female)    0.02 (0.22)    0.00 (0.22)
Age group
 25–34    0.33 (0.37)    0.34 (0.37)
 35–54    0.33 (0.32)    0.32 (0.32)
 55 or more    0.32 (0.38)    0.32 (0.38)
Position (module 2)      0.84*** (0.23) 0.92*** (0.23)
Item difficulty      3.42*** (0.39) 3.34*** (0.38)
Item difficulty × score cognitive pre-test        − 0.43** (0.14)
\(Var\left( {b_{0p} } \right)\) 147.47   141.71   137.12   130.94  
\(Var\left( {b_{0i} } \right)\) 0.92   0.91   0.69   0.68  
  1. SE standard error
  2. p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001