Skip to main content

Table 3 LS and QR estimates of the effects of covariate on mathematics achievement in primary school—second grade

From: Beyond the mean estimate: a quantile regression analysis of inequalities in educational outcomes using INVALSI survey data

  LS Mathematics—L2
QR
\(\theta = 0.1\) \(\theta = 0.25\) \(\theta = 0.5\) \(\theta = 0.75\) \(\theta = 0.9\) p value equiv.test
(Intercept) 173.69 143.49 145.74 190.36 199.13 226.49  
  (1.90) (2.56) (2.68) (2.25) (3.31) (3.74)  
Female −4.37 −2.85 −5.36 −5.55 −6.22 −7.21 < 0.01
  (0.63) (1.49) (1.46) (0.30) (1.41) (1.72)  
Early enrolment −4.11 0.03 −0.03 −4.49 −4.44 −11.93 0.15
  (2.69) (5.91) (2.91) (3.15) (3.84) (4.81)  
Late enrolment −8.55 −15.62 −13.66 −11.39 −3.72 −0.05 < 0.01
  (2.49) (4.10) (3.78) (3.98) (4.77) (3.71)  
Kindergarten:yes 3.25 3.57 3.44 5.23 4.29 2.29 0.70
  (1.55) (2.53) (2.12) (2.94) (2.81) (2.62)  
Immigrant −11.53 −10.38 −8.01 −11.58 −15.35 −14.22 < 0.01
  (1.10) (2.12) (1.71) (1.79) (2.17) (2.07)  
Centre-Italy −0.25 −0.72 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.90
  (0.88) (1.56) (0.83) (0.47) (1.61) (1.89)  
South-Italy −5.79 −6.81 −1.92 −1.31 0.40 2.29 < 0.01
  (1.42) (0.59) (1.78) (2.35) (1.40) (1.82)  
Pared 1.98 1.82 2.03 2.11 2.02 1.90 < 0.05
  (0.07) (0.14) (0.07) (0.06) (0.13) (0.2)  
  1. In Italic estimates with p < 0.05. Standard errors in parenthesis computed with non-clustered bootstrap estimation. In the last column the p value of the equivalence test (equiv.test) results