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Table 7 Overview of freed parameters for testing partial measurement invariance (item: thresholds that have been freed)

From: Same but different? Measurement invariance of the PIAAC motivation-to-learn scale across key socio-demographic groups

Country Gender Age groups Level of education Migration background
Australia    I_Q04d: 3/4  
Austria   I_Q04d: 3/4   
Czech Republic I_Q04j: 1/2    
Denmark   I_Q04d: 3/4 I_Q04d: 3/4 I_Q04j: 2/3
I_Q04d: 4
Germany   I_Q04d: 3/4   
Ireland    I_Q04j: 3/4  
I_Q04d: 3/4
Korea   I_Q04d: 1 I_Q04j: 2*  
I_Q04m: 1/2 I_Q04j: 3/4
I_Q04d: 3/4
The Netherlands    I_Q04j: 3/4  
I_Q04d: 3/4
Norway    I_Q04j: 3/4  
I_Q04d: 3/4
Sweden   I_Q04d: 3/4   
United Kingdom   I_Q04d: 3/4 I_Q04j: 3/4  
I_Q04d: 3/4
  1. Item I_Q04d, “I like learning new things.”; Item I_Q04j, “I like to get to the bottom of difficult things.”; Item I_Q04l, “I like to figure out how different ideas fit together.”; Item I_Q04m, “If I don’t understand something, I look for additional information to make it clearer.”; for Korea, the threshold of item I_Q04j has been freed only for the low educational level, which had also free factor loadings for item I_Q04l and I_Q04m