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Table 2 Overview of the internal consistency of the scale and the highest level of measurement invariance per country and grouping variable

From: Same but different? Measurement invariance of the PIAAC motivation-to-learn scale across key socio-demographic groups

Country α Gender Age groups Level of education Migration background
Australia .837 Strong Strong Partial strong Strong
Austria .811 Strong Partial strong Strong Strong
Canada .812 Strong Strong Strong Strong
Czech Republic .755 Partial strong Weak Weak n/a
Denmark .785 Strong Partial strong Partial strong Partial strong
Estonia .825 Strong Strong Strong n/a
Finland .745 Strong n/a Weak n/a
France .780 Strong Strong Strong Strong
Germany .790 Strong Partial strong Strong Strong
Ireland .820 Strong Strong Partial strong Strong
Italy .836 Strong Strong Strong Strong
Japan .804 Strong Strong Strong n/a
Korea .844 Strong Partial strong Partial strong n/a
The Netherlands .824 Strong Strong Partial Strong Strong
Norway .761 Strong n/a Partial Strong Weak
Poland .840 Strong Strong Strong n/a
Slovak Republic .886 Strong Strong n/a Strong
Spain .773 Strong Strong Strong Strong
Sweden .784 Strong Partial strong Strong Weak
United Kingdom .837 Strong Partial strong Partial strong Strong
United States .822 Strong Strong Strong Strong
  1. n/a not available because case numbers in at least one response category for at least one group were too small to fit the model