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Table 3 Correlations between the different HRL indices and mathematics achievement of fourth-grade students (average values across countries)

From: Assuming measurement invariance of background indicators in international comparative educational achievement studies: a challenge for the interpretation of achievement differences

Variable M1 M2 M3 M4 MAT
RP 0.99 0.99 1.00 0.97 0.41
M1   1.00 0.99 0.95 0.40
M2    0.99 0.95 0.40
M3     0.97 0.41
M4      0.40
  1. RP, HRL index replicating the scaling model from Martin et al. (2013); M1, HRL index using scaling model 1; M2, HRL index using scaling model 2; M3, HRL index using scaling model 3; M4, HRL index using scaling model 4; MAT, mathematics achievement of fourth graders