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Table 1 Items of the home resources for learning scale (fourth grade) and percentage of yes responses overall countries (n = 138,103)

From: Assuming measurement invariance of background indicators in international comparative educational achievement studies: a challenge for the interpretation of achievement differences

Item Response option % yes SE
Number of books in the home (students) 0–10 17.1 0.24
11–25 25.9 0.21
26–100 31.5 0.20
101–200 14.0 0.15
More than 200 11.5 0.17
Number of home study supports (students) None 12.8 0.18
Internet connection or own room 36.9 0.19
Both 50.3 0.23
Number of children’s books in the home (parents) 0–10 24.2 0.20
11–25 21.9 0.17
26–50 24.7 0.16
51–100 17.4 0.14
More than 100 11.9 0.14
Highest level of education of either parent (parents) Finished some primary or lower secondary or did not go to school 7.9 0.18
Finished lower secondary 13.6 0.17
Finished upper secondary 31.4 0.22
Finished post-secondary education 19.1 0.16
Finished university or higher 28.0 0.28
Highest level of occupation of either parent (parents) Has never worked outside home for pay, general laborer, or semi-professional (skilled agricultural or fishery worker, craft or trade worker, plant or machine operator) 27.7 0.21
Clerical (clerk or service or sales worker) 25.8 0.16
Small business owner 13.1 0.14
Professional (corporate manager or senior official, professional, or technician or associate professional) 33.4 0.23