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Fig. 1 | Large-scale Assessments in Education

Fig. 1

From: Assuming measurement invariance of background indicators in international comparative educational achievement studies: a challenge for the interpretation of achievement differences

Fig. 1

Distribution of the fixed effects across countries given scaling model. 1 Scaling model 1—constant discrimination parameter across countries and items. 2 Scaling model 2—constant discrimination parameter across items but vary across countries. 3 Scaling model 3—discrimination parameter are constant across countries but vary over items. 4 Scaling model 4—discrimination parameter vary across countries and across items. b0 Intercept. b1 Individual effect of early literacy/numeracy tasks. b2 School effect of early literacy/numeracy tasks. b3 Individual effect of home resource for learning index. b4 School effect of home resource for learning index

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