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Table 2 The layout of the data structure for the SEM analysis

From: A structural equation modeling approach for examining position effects in large-scale assessments

Examinees Item responses Forms Passage positions Item positions
i1 i45 f1 f2 f3 f4 pp1 pp7 ip1 ip45
1     1 0 0 0 1 7 46 4
2     0 1 0 0 2 4 45 3
3     0 0 1 0 1 6 52 5
4     0 0 0 1 3 4 52 6
  1. i1 to i45: dichotomous item responses; f1 to f4: dummy variables for the test forms; pp1 to pp7: passage positions; ip1 to ip45: item positions. Only one examinee from each test form was used to demonstrate the data layout