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Table 4 Regression results for Model 2—adjusting for age, gender parental education, migration background and books in the home at age 16.

From: Degrees of competency: the relationship between educational qualifications and adult skills across countries

  AT CA CZ DK EN/NIa EE FI BE FR DE IR
Below ISCED 2 (Ref: ISCED 2) −13.1 −18.3   −36.4 −25.2 −32.0 −12.1 −17.1 −22.5 −23.3 −21.4
ISCED 3 4 voc. 10.0 33.7 18.4 14.9 7.0 18.6 5.7 −1.2 11.2 13.9 22.8
ISCED 3 4 non-voc. 29.7 29.8 38.1 26.4 20.4 20.4 32.3 29.2 31.4 45.1 24.1
ISCED 5B 24.9 43.1 37.7 35.7 18.2 25.5 27.5 0.0 38.5 32.9 33.7
ISCED 5A BA 33.6 62.2 41.4 40.1 34.5 43.9 40.2 34.7 44.7 46.1 49.0
ISCED 5A MA 6 40.3 71.1 48.1 51.0 0.0 43.4 49.2 54.7 53.4 53.0 53.6
Age 31–35 (Ref: age 26–30) −3.8 −2.5 1.1 −6.1 1.8 −4.2 0.9 −1.4 0.4 −4.3 2.1
Age 36–40 −3.1 −2.6 −5.6 −2.4 2.4 −7.7 −1.1 −6.8 −4.2 −2.9 2.9
Age 41–45 −7.0 −5.2 −10.1 −7.4 1.3 −11.7 −9.9 −7.4 −9.4 −3.6 0.3
Age 46–50 −13.8 −8.8 −11.2 −11.8 −2.4 −14.4 −12.3 −10.8 −12.0 −12.0 −5.8
Age 51–55 −15.1 −11.5 −17.2 −16.7 −0.4 −15.3 −20.2 −15.3 −12.0 −16.9 −0.2
Age 56–60 −22.2 −10.4 −13.1 −22.1 −2.0 −17.2 −28.7 −22.2 −14.4 −17.5 −4.7
Age 61–65 −27.1 −11.3 −15.4 −28.9 0.7 −14.3 −34.9 −22.0 −12.4 −25.7 0.2
Female −2.2 −4.0 −1.9 −2.2 −4.4 −1.6 −1.7 −4.3 −2.1 −1.9 −5.9
Native-born/foreign language (Ref: native born/native language) −14.6 −0.1 22.7 −7.9 −18.4 −2.1 −27.2 −11.6 −12.6 −4.9 13.3
Foreign-born/native language −4.3 −18.9 −26.8 −1.7 −16.4 −16.2 3.5 −6.9 −27.7 −9.1 −5.9
Foreign-born/foreign language −23.0 −34.9 −2.3 −51.0 −41.0 −13.0 −68.9 −58.4 −43.5 −32.1 −35.4
One parent ISCED 3 or 4 (Ref: both parents ISCED 2 or below) 0.1 6.2 3.6 0.3 9.9 −1.5 1.1 4.5 2.6 5.8 4.3
Both parents ISCED 3 or 4 6.5 6.8 4.8 −0.6 13.1 0.6 2.8 8.8 4.3 9.4 8.8
One parent ISCED 5 or 6 3.2 7.4 3.6 3.3 12.3 −0.5 4.3 9.1 6.2 8.8 6.9
Both parents ISCED 5 or 6 2.7 9.0 4.2 8.3 20.8 7.3 7.8 11.9 7.1 8.9 8.4
Books in the home at age 16 8.6 8.4 7.2 7.1 8.8 8.4 6.2 5.6 5.9 7.7 7.2
Constant 269.9 246.1 252.5 261.4 260.3 258.6 282.7 265.4 254.0 251.2 249.3
Adj. R2 0.30 0.36 0.23 0.38 0.33 0.24 0.40 0.41 0.41 0.39 0.35
  IT JP KO NL NO PL SK ES SE US
Below ISCED blow 2 (Ref: ISCED 2) −23.7   −17.7 −26.5 −36.8 −7.3   −21.3 −12.6 −2.5
ISCED 3 4 voc. 14.2 20.7 18.1 12.7 4.0 16.8 19.1 2.2 9.8 30.6
ISCED 3 4 non-voc. 20.9 17.4 16.1 37.6 21.1 24.7 29.4 16.7 18.8 26.1
ISCED 5B 0.0 27.5 27.8 27.6 25.7 0.0 0.0 19.2 32.6 44.3
ISCED 5A BA 29.7 41.5 38.3 39.4 31.9 41.2 33.3 30.0 40.4 56.3
ISCED 5A MA 6 34.3 51.9 51.4 52.3 39.9 50.6 37.8 43.7 45.9 69.5
Age 31–35 (Ref: age 26–30) −3.3 0.3 −4.6 −1.9 −0.4 −7.9 −0.7 −0.3 −2.0 −2.8
Age 36–40 −1.8 0.0 −5.8 −2.7 −1.8 −4.2 3.7 1.6 −1.1 −2.0
Age 41–45 0.1 −1.7 −14.8 −1.2 −1.6 −4.1 −4.4 −2.5 −1.2 −4.2
Age 46–50 −1.0 −6.6 −17.8 −10.7 −5.1 −3.9 −1.7 −2.9 −4.5 −7.5
Age 51–55 0.0 −12.6 −21.5 −17.1 −11.5 −10.0 −3.0 −11.8 −9.3 −5.1
Age 56–60 −5.6 −18.1 −18.4 −22.7 −20.0 −9.0 −2.5 −18.8 −13.8 −9.8
Age 61–65 −6.0 −29.0 −23.1 −29.0 −25.5 −11.9 0.5 −18.9 −22.9 −6.6
Female 0.6 −0.2 −3.9 −5.7 −7.6 3.4 −0.6 −6.4 −6.0 −1.2
Native-born/foreign language (Ref: native born/native language) −3.6 24.0 −4.4 −27.4 −17.4 −11.5 −8.1 −1.4 −4.9 −2.2
Foreign-born/native language −15.3 −73.1 −31.1 −31.0 0.2 0.0 −2.3 −21.8 −16.9 −7.7
Foreign-born/foreign language −28.8 −87.0 −55.0 −48.0 −51.3 0.0 6.8 −39.4 −64.8 −30.3
One parent ISCED 3 or 4 (Ref: both parents ISCED 2 or below) 5.5 4.6 3.9 3.6 4.3 3.6 6.9 1.1 1.8 9.0
Both parents ISCED 3 or 4 2.4 4.4 1.3 4.5 7.0 6.9 7.8 −1.6 6.5 19.9
One parent ISCED 5 or 6 5.7 4.7 2.7 0.4 2.6 6.3 6.2 3.5 3.0 19.3
Both parents ISCED 5 or 6 −4.5 1.0 7.2 3.7 10.5 9.2 13.7 1.3 6.8 27.1
Books in the home at age 16 8.1 6.6 5.2 6.3 8.2 8.7 7.9 8.4 9.9 5.9
Constant 248.2 279.5 265.0 280.1 272.4 241.0 247.4 255.9 271.6 228.4
Adj. R2 0.29 0.32 0.37 0.48 0.40 0.26 0.26 0.39 0.47 0.42
  1. aISCED 5A BA for England/Northern Ireland includes both BA and MA, as well as ISCED 6