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Fig. 3 | Large-scale Assessments in Education

Fig. 3

From: Degrees of competency: the relationship between educational qualifications and adult skills across countries

Fig. 3

Literacy skills by detailed educational attainment and country, additionally adjusting for occupational group, reading at home, and participation in training activities in the last 12 months. Source: Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), 2012; own calculations. Notes ISCED = International Standard Classification of Education. Sample is restricted to adults aged 25–65 years in 2011 and to respondents who completed their highest educational qualification in the country they participated in for PIAAC. Reference categories: 25–30 years, male, both parents ISCED 2 or below, no migration background, standardized measure of books, not currently working, low score on reading at home scale, participated in formal training during the last 12 months. a ISCED 5A BA for England/Northern Ireland includes both BA and MA, as well as ISCED 6

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