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Table 8 PIRLSvariables included in the standard and the country-specific models (5 countries)

From: Evaluating the risk of nonresponse bias in educational large-scale assessments with school nonresponse questionnaires: a theoretical study

Name Label Variables used in standard model Variables used in country-specific models
Belgium (French) England Netherlands Northern Ireland Norway
ACBG02 What is the total enrollment of <fourth-grade> students in your school as of <first day of month PIRLS/TIMSS testing begins, 2010/2011>?   X     
ACBG03A Approximately what percentages of students in your school have the following backgrounds? (Come from economically affluent homes) X   X   X  
ACBG03B Approximately what percentages of students in your school have the following backgrounds? (Come from economically disadvantaged homes) X X X    
ACBG04 Approximately what percentages of students in your school have <language of test> as their native language?   X     
ACBG05A How many people live in the city, town, or area where your school is located? X    X   
ACBG05C Which best characterizes the average income level of the school’s immediate area? X    X   
ACBG06A How many days per year is your school open for instruction?    X   X  
ACBG06BA What is the total instructional time, excluding breaks, in a typical day?     X   
ACBG09B Approximately how many titles of magazines and other periodicals does your school library have?      X  
ACBG10AD How much is your school’s capacity to provide instruction affected by a shortage or inadequacy of the following? (General School Resources: Heating/cooling and lighting systems)   X     
ACBG10AF How much is your school’s capacity to provide instruction affected by a shortage or inadequacy of the following? (General School Resources: Technologically competent staff)       X
ACBG10AG How much is your school’s capacity to provide instruction affected by a shortage or inadequacy of the following? (General School Resources: Computers for instruction)       X
ACBG10BD How much is your school’s capacity to provide instruction affected by a shortage or inadequacy of the following? (Audio-visual resources for reading instruction)    X    
ACBG10CA How much is your school’s capacity to provide instruction affected by a shortage or inadequacy of the following? (Teachers with a specialization in mathematics)       X
ACBG10CB How much is your school’s capacity to provide instruction affected by a shortage or inadequacy of the following? (Computer software for mathematics instruction)      X  
ACBG10CC How much is your school’s capacity to provide instruction affected by a shortage or inadequacy of the following? (Library materials relevant to mathematics instruction)   X     
ACBG10CE How much is your school’s capacity to provide instruction affected by a shortage or inadequacy of the following? (Calculators for mathematics instruction)      X  
ACBG10DA How much is your school’s capacity to provide instruction affected by a shortage or inadequacy of the following? (Teachers with a specialization in science)     X   
ACBG11AA How often does your school do the following for parents concerning individual students? (Inform parents about their child’s learning progress)     X   X
ACBG11AB How often does your school do the following for parents concerning individual students? (Inform parents about the behavior and well-being of their child at school)    X    
ACBG11AC How often does your school do the following for parents concerning individual students? (Discuss parents’ concerns or wishes about their child’s learning)    X    
ACBG11BA How often does your school ask parents to do the following? (Volunteer for school projects, programs, and trips)    X   X  
ACBG11BB How often does your school ask parents to do the following? (Serve on school committees)   X     
ACBG11CB How often does your school do the following for parents in general? (Inform parents about school accomplishments (e.g., tournament results, facility improvements))   X     X
ACBG11CC How often does your school do the following for parents in general? (Inform parents about the educational goals and pedagogic principles of the school)    X    
ACBG12B How would you characterize each of the following within your school? (Teachers’ understanding of the school’s curricular goals)      X  
ACBG12D How would you characterize each of the following within your school? (Teachers’ expectations for student achievement) X      
ACBG12E How would you characterize each of the following within your school? (Parental support for student achievement) X      
ACBG12F How would you characterize each of the following within your school? (Parental involvement in school activities) X      
ACBG12G How would you characterize each of the following within your school? (Students’ regard for school property)      X X
ACBG12H How would you characterize each of the following within your school? (Students’ desire to do well at school) X X     X
ACBG13AA To what degree is each of the following a problem among <fourth-grade> students in your school? (Arriving late at school)     X   
ACBG13AB To what degree is each of the following a problem among <fourth-grade> students in your school? (Unjustified absenteeism) X      
ACBG13AC To what degree is each of the following a problem among <fourth-grade> students in your school? (Classroom disturbance)      X  
ACBG13AJ To what degree is each of the following a problem among <fourth-grade> students in your school? (Intimidation or verbal abuse of teachers or staff (including texting, emailing, etc.))   X     
ACBG13BB To what degree is each of the following a problem among teachers in your school? (Absenteeism)     X   
ACBG14A In your school, are any of the following used to evaluate the practice of <fourth-grade> teachers? (Observations by the principal or senior staff)      X X
ACBG14C In your school, are any of the following used to evaluate the practice of <fourth-grade> teachers? (Student achievement)     X   
ACBG15C During the past year, approximately how much time have you spent on the following school leadership activities in your role as a school principal? (Monitoring teachers’ implementation of the school’s educational goals in their teaching)       X
ACBG15D During the past year, approximately how much time have you spent on the following school leadership activities in your role as a school principal? (Monitoring students’ learning progress to ensure that the school’s educational goals are reached)    X    
ACBG15G During the past year, approximately how much time have you spent on the following school leadership activities in your role as a school principal? (Addressing disruptive student behavior)     X   
ACBG15H During the past year, approximately how much time have you spent on the following school leadership activities in your role as a school principal? (Creating a climate of trust among teachers)     X   X
ACBG15K During the past year, approximately how much time have you spent on the following school leadership activities in your role as a school principal? (Visiting other schools or attending educational conferences for new ideas)    X X   
ACBG16A About how many of the students in your school can do the following when they begin primary/elementary school? (Recognize most of the letters of the alphabet) X      
ACBG16B About how many of the students in your school can do the following when they begin primary/elementary school? (Read some words) X      
ACBG17G At which grade do the following reading skills and strategies first receive a major emphasis in instruction in your school? (Identifying the main idea of a text)   X     
ACBG17N At which grade do the following reading skills and strategies first receive a major emphasis in instruction in your school? (Determining the author’s perspective or intention)      X  
ACBG18C Compared with other areas of the curriculum (e.g., mathematics and science), how much emphasis does your school place on teaching the following language and literacy skills to students in <grades 1–4>? (Speaking/listening (oral language)       X
ACBG19 For students in <fourth grade> and below, does your school make provisions for reading instruction in mother tongue for students whose mother tongue is not <language of test>?   X X