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Table 6 Descriptive statistics of R2 (explained variance of achievement score) across countries by model and study

From: Evaluating the risk of nonresponse bias in educational large-scale assessments with school nonresponse questionnaires: a theoretical study

PIRLS Model
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Minimum 0.00 0.00 0.00 −0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.09
Maximum 0.40 0.48 0.55 0.61 0.61 0.62 0.73 0.73 0.73 0.75 0.77
Standard Deviation 0.10 0.12 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14
Cross-country average 0.13 0.17 0.21 0.23 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.29 0.30 0.32 0.34
TIMSS grade 4 Model
1 2 3 4 5 6
Minimum 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.03
Maximum 0.50 0.60 0.65 0.66 0.66 0.66
Standard deviation 0.13 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.14 0.14
Cross-country average 0.13 0.16 0.18 0.21 0.22 0.24
TIMSS grade 8 Model
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Minimum −0.01 −0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.09 0.12
Maximum 0.33 0.38 0.46 0.50 0.55 0.56 0.60 0.60 0.65 0.67
Standard deviation 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.14
Cross-country average 0.12 0.15 0.20 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.30 0.31 0.34 0.36