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Table 5 PIRLS grade 4explained variance of school-averaged reading score by model and country

From: Evaluating the risk of nonresponse bias in educational large-scale assessments with school nonresponse questionnaires: a theoretical study

Country Model 1* Model 2* Model 3* Model 4* Model 5* Model 6* Model 7* Model 8* Model 9* Model 10* Model 11*
R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.)
Australia 0.32 (0.09) 0.40 (0.07) 0.40 (0.08) 0.41 (0.08) 0.41 (0.08) 0.42 (0.09) 0.52 (0.06) 0.52 (0.06) 0.52 (0.06) 0.51 (0.07) 0.52 (0.06)
Austria 0.08 (0.05) 0.08 (0.05) 0.10 (0.05) 0.14 (0.05) 0.14 (0.06) 0.14 (0.05) 0.14 (0.06) 0.14 (0.06) 0.18 (0.06) 0.30 (0.06) 0.37 (0.05)
Republic of Azerbaijan 0.02 (0.05) 0.02 (0.07) 0.05 (0.08) 0.07 (0.08) 0.12 (0.06) 0.14 (0.08) 0.14 (0.08) 0.15 (0.09) 0.18 (0.08) 0.17 (0.15) 0.18 (0.15)
Belgium (French) 0.28 (0.07) 0.30 (0.05) 0.32 (0.05) 0.32 (0.05) 0.32 (0.06) 0.32 (0.06) 0.35 (0.06) 0.36 (0.06) 0.40 (0.06) 0.50 (0.05) 0.55 (0.06)
Botswana 0.28 (0.08) 0.40 (0.07) 0.47 (0.07) 0.57 (0.08) 0.58 (0.08) 0.58 (0.08) 0.60 (0.08) 0.61 (0.08) 0.62 (0.08) 0.62 (0.08) 0.58 (0.08)
Bulgaria 0.06 (0.07) 0.09 (0.09) 0.15 (0.07) 0.25 (0.07) 0.27 (0.08) 0.28 (0.09) 0.28 (0.09) 0.28 (0.10) 0.30 (0.09) 0.37 (0.08) 0.37 (0.08)
Canada 0.11 (0.03) 0.11 (0.03) 0.13 (0.03) 0.14 (0.03) 0.15 (0.03) 0.19 (0.04) 0.22 (0.04) 0.22 (0.04) 0.22 (0.04) 0.23 (0.04) 0.23 (0.05)
Canada (Alberta) 0.27 (0.08) 0.30 (0.09) 0.31 (0.09) 0.33 (0.09) 0.34 (0.09) 0.34 (0.09) 0.35 (0.09) 0.36 (0.09) 0.37 (0.10) 0.38 (0.10) 0.37 (0.10)
Canada (Ontario) 0.11 (0.05) 0.11 (0.05) 0.12 (0.05) 0.14 (0.07) 0.15 (0.07) 0.27 (0.07) 0.28 (0.08) 0.28 (0.08) 0.28 (0.08) 0.27 (0.08) 0.25 (0.08)
Canada (Quebec) 0.06 (0.06) 0.05 (0.06) 0.07 (0.08) 0.08 (0.10) 0.08 (0.10) 0.12 (0.10) 0.13 (0.11) 0.14 (0.12) 0.14 (0.14) 0.12 (0.16) 0.11 (0.16)
Chinese Taipei 0.40 (0.08) 0.40 (0.08) 0.54 (0.09) 0.61 (0.09) 0.61 (0.09) 0.62 (0.10) 0.73 (0.08) 0.73 (0.08) 0.73 (0.08) 0.75 (0.08) 0.77 (0.08)
Colombia 0.00 (0.02) 0.02 (0.04) 0.22 (0.09) 0.22 (0.09) 0.24 (0.09) 0.31 (0.12) 0.38 (0.11) 0.40 (0.10) 0.40 (0.10) 0.48 (0.12) 0.51 (0.12)
Croatia 0.10 (0.06) 0.09 (0.06) 0.27 (0.09) 0.30 (0.10) 0.30 (0.10) 0.30 (0.10) 0.30 (0.10) 0.31 (0.09) 0.33 (0.09) 0.35 (0.09) 0.36 (0.10)
Czech Republic 0.11 (0.07) 0.11 (0.08) 0.14 (0.07) 0.16 (0.07) 0.16 (0.07) 0.17 (0.07) 0.17 (0.07) 0.23 (0.07) 0.23 (0.07) 0.24 (0.07) 0.27 (0.08)
Denmark 0.14 (0.05) 0.15 (0.05) 0.16 (0.06) 0.18 (0.06) 0.18 (0.06) 0.18 (0.06) 0.21 (0.05) 0.21 (0.05) 0.22 (0.06) 0.24 (0.06) 0.25 (0.06)
England 0.27 (0.07) 0.32 (0.07) 0.31 (0.08) 0.35 (0.08) 0.35 (0.08) 0.39 (0.09) 0.39 (0.09) 0.39 (0.09) 0.40 (0.09) 0.50 (0.08) 0.55 (0.07)
Finland 0.07 (0.05) 0.08 (0.05) 0.09 (0.05) 0.14 (0.06) 0.14 (0.06) 0.15 (0.07) 0.16 (0.07) 0.21 (0.09) 0.21 (0.09) 0.24 (0.09) 0.28 (0.10)
France 0.25 (0.06) 0.25 (0.06) 0.26 (0.06) 0.25 (0.06) 0.25 (0.06) 0.26 (0.06) 0.30 (0.06) 0.36 (0.06) 0.37 (0.06) 0.37 (0.07) 0.38 (0.07)
Georgia 0.00 (0.01) 0.00 (0.01) 0.08 (0.05) 0.08 (0.05) 0.08 (0.05) 0.15 (0.05) 0.15 (0.06) 0.16 (0.06) 0.17 (0.06) 0.16 (0.05) 0.17 (0.06)
Germany 0.08 (0.05) 0.19 (0.10) 0.19 (0.10) 0.19 (0.10) 0.21 (0.09) 0.32 (0.10) 0.45 (0.06) 0.46 (0.06) 0.46 (0.06) 0.47 (0.06) 0.54 (0.07)
Republic of Honduras 0.13 (0.07) 0.23 (0.08) 0.28 (0.09) 0.28 (0.10) 0.28 (0.10) 0.36 (0.08) 0.36 (0.08) 0.40 (0.07) 0.41 (0.08) 0.43 (0.10) 0.43 (0.10)
Hong Kong. SAR 0.00 (0.00) 0.03 (0.05) 0.02 (0.06) 0.02 (0.06) 0.05 (0.07) 0.05 (0.08) 0.04 (0.08) 0.04 (0.09) 0.05 (0.08) 0.10 (0.10) 0.12 (0.10)
Hungary 0.26 (0.06) 0.48 (0.08) 0.55 (0.08) 0.55 (0.08) 0.56 (0.07) 0.57 (0.07) 0.58 (0.06) 0.58 (0.07) 0.59 (0.07) 0.57 (0.08) 0.60 (0.07)
Indonesia 0.06 (0.04) 0.08 (0.05) 0.12 (0.05) 0.12 (0.05) 0.13 (0.05) 0.13 (0.05) 0.13 (0.06) 0.14 (0.06) 0.14 (0.06) 0.26 (0.08) 0.26 (0.08)
Islamic Republic of Iran 0.06 (0.04) 0.08 (0.04) 0.32 (0.05) 0.32 (0.05) 0.33 (0.05) 0.36 (0.05) 0.39 (0.06) 0.40 (0.06) 0.42 (0.06) 0.43 (0.06) 0.43 (0.06)
Ireland 0.06 (0.05) 0.09 (0.07) 0.12 (0.08) Models were not computed because questions ACBG16A and ACBG16B were not administered
Israel 0.21 (0.06) 0.33 (0.06) 0.35 (0.05) 0.35 (0.05) 0.35 (0.05) 0.38 (0.06) 0.40 (0.05) 0.41 (0.05) 0.41 (0.05) 0.41 (0.06) 0.45 (0.06)
Italy 0.02 (0.04) 0.01 (0.04) 0.01 (0.04) 0.01 (0.04) 0.03 (0.05) 0.03 (0.04) 0.04 (0.05) 0.04 (0.05) 0.04 (0.05) 0.04 (0.06) 0.09 (0.06)
Kuwait 0.01 (0.02) 0.00 (0.02) 0.00 (0.03) −0.01 (0.03) 0.01 (0.05) 0.02 (0.05) 0.02 (0.05) 0.16 (0.09) 0.18 (0.09) 0.22 (0.11) 0.23 (0.12)
Lithuania 0.17 (0.06) 0.17 (0.05) 0.30 (0.06) 0.28 (0.06) 0.29 (0.06) 0.30 (0.06) 0.32 (0.06) 0.31 (0.06) 0.34 (0.08) 0.37 (0.07) 0.44 (0.08)
Malta 0.09 (0.07) 0.15 (0.07) 0.15 (0.09) 0.16 (0.09) 0.16 (0.09) 0.19 (0.08) 0.24 (0.08) 0.23 (0.08) 0.23 (0.07) 0.23 (0.08) 0.28 (0.08)
Malta (Maltese) 0.18 (0.06) 0.21 (0.07) 0.20 (0.07) 0.19 (0.07) 0.19 (0.08) 0.19 (0.08) 0.18 (0.08) 0.17 (0.08) 0.16 (0.08) 0.16 (0.09) 0.21 (0.10)
Morocco 0.10 (0.05) 0.10 (0.05) 0.20 (0.06) 0.20 (0.07) 0.20 (0.07) 0.20 (0.07) 0.20 (0.07) 0.24 (0.06) 0.24 (0.06) 0.36 (0.07) 0.35 (0.07)
Morocco (Grade 6) 0.14 (0.06) 0.14 (0.06) 0.26 (0.05) 0.27 (0.06) 0.27 (0.06) 0.27 (0.06) 0.32 (0.06) 0.35 (0.05) 0.35 (0.05) 0.38 (0.06) 0.35 (0.07)
Netherlands 0.22 (0.06) 0.23 (0.06) 0.26 (0.07) 0.27 (0.07) 0.28 (0.08) 0.28 (0.07) 0.28 (0.08) 0.29 (0.07) 0.30 (0.07) 0.32 (0.09) 0.32 (0.09)
New Zealand 0.19 (0.08) 0.26 (0.07) 0.26 (0.07) 0.29 (0.06) 0.31 (0.06) 0.31 (0.06) 0.31 (0.06) 0.32 (0.07) 0.32 (0.07) 0.33 (0.09) 0.33 (0.09)
Northern Ireland 0.24 (0.07) 0.25 (0.06) 0.24 (0.08) 0.24 (0.08) 0.25 (0.08) 0.29 (0.10) 0.29 (0.11) 0.30 (0.11) 0.31 (0.11) 0.36 (0.14) 0.43 (0.12)
Norway 0.03 (0.03) 0.05 (0.05) 0.15 (0.08) 0.18 (0.09) 0.20 (0.08) 0.23 (0.08) 0.27 (0.07) 0.27 (0.07) 0.28 (0.07) 0.29 (0.07) 0.28 (0.06)
Oman 0.07 (0.03) 0.14 (0.05) 0.15 (0.05) 0.15 (0.05) 0.20 (0.07) 0.24 (0.06) 0.24 (0.07) 0.24 (0.06) 0.26 (0.07) 0.25 (0.07) 0.29 (0.07)
Poland 0.17 (0.07) 0.17 (0.07) 0.24 (0.07) 0.26 (0.07) 0.28 (0.07) 0.29 (0.07) 0.29 (0.07) 0.29 (0.07) 0.32 (0.07) 0.33 (0.07) 0.34 (0.07)
Portugal 0.20 (0.08) 0.20 (0.08) 0.22 (0.08) 0.22 (0.08) 0.23 (0.08) 0.28 (0.08) 0.28 (0.08) 0.29 (0.08) 0.31 (0.09) 0.26 (0.10) 0.30 (0.12)
Qatar 0.03 (0.03) 0.08 (0.05) 0.21 (0.08) 0.24 (0.08) 0.27 (0.08) 0.27 (0.08) 0.30 (0.08) 0.31 (0.07) 0.32 (0.07) 0.31 (0.07) 0.24 (0.07)
Romania 0.03 (0.03) 0.06 (0.06) 0.17 (0.07) 0.20 (0.07) 0.21 (0.08) 0.21 (0.08) 0.22 (0.08) 0.25 (0.08) 0.25 (0.09) 0.37 (0.07) 0.36 (0.07)
Russian Federation 0.04 (0.04) 0.04 (0.04) 0.14 (0.06) 0.14 (0.06) 0.14 (0.06) 0.15 (0.06) 0.15 (0.06) 0.16 (0.06) 0.19 (0.07) 0.18 (0.07) 0.19 (0.09)
Saudi Arabia 0.08 (0.06) 0.11 (0.07) 0.11 (0.06) 0.14 (0.06) 0.16 (0.06) 0.20 (0.06) 0.21 (0.06) 0.29 (0.05) 0.29 (0.05) 0.28 (0.06) 0.30 (0.07)
Singapore 0.15 (0.06) 0.17 (0.06) 0.17 (0.06) 0.17 (0.06) 0.17 (0.06) 0.21 (0.06) 0.26 (0.06) 0.26 (0.06) 0.26 (0.06) 0.29 (0.06) 0.32 (0.06)
Slovak Republic 0.03 (0.02) 0.16 (0.06) 0.24 (0.06) 0.25 (0.06) 0.25 (0.06) 0.27 (0.07) 0.28 (0.07) 0.29 (0.07) 0.29 (0.07) 0.33 (0.08) 0.35 (0.08)
Slovenia 0.02 (0.04) 0.01 (0.04) 0.03 (0.05) 0.04 (0.05) 0.04 (0.05) 0.05 (0.05) 0.09 (0.05) 0.10 (0.05) 0.13 (0.05) 0.14 (0.06) 0.19 (0.10)
South Africa 0.26 (0.08) 0.39 (0.09) 0.48 (0.10) 0.51 (0.08) 0.56 (0.08) 0.57 (0.09) 0.62 (0.07) 0.62 (0.07) 0.62 (0.07) 0.62 (0.06) 0.63 (0.07)
Spain 0.29 (0.06) 0.30 (0.07) 0.31 (0.07) 0.34 (0.07) 0.34 (0.07) 0.34 (0.07) 0.35 (0.06) 0.36 (0.06) 0.36 (0.06) 0.39 (0.07) 0.39 (0.08)
Spain (Andalucía) 0.31 (0.07) 0.31 (0.07) 0.30 (0.07) 0.32 (0.07) 0.34 (0.08) 0.37 (0.08) 0.38 (0.08) 0.40 (0.08) 0.40 (0.08) 0.38 (0.08) 0.43 (0.08)
Sweden 0.10 (0.08) 0.10 (0.08) 0.10 (0.08) 0.13 (0.06) 0.14 (0.07) 0.15 (0.07) 0.16 (0.07) 0.19 (0.07) 0.21 (0.08) 0.20 (0.08) 0.25 (0.08)
Trinidad And Tobago 0.12 (0.06) 0.14 (0.07) 0.17 (0.08) 0.17 (0.08) 0.17 (0.08) 0.18 (0.08) 0.21 (0.08) 0.22 (0.08) 0.21 (0.07) 0.23 (0.08) 0.21 (0.08)
United Arab Emirates 0.03 (0.02) 0.07 (0.03) 0.10 (0.04) 0.13 (0.05) 0.13 (0.05) 0.13 (0.04) 0.17 (0.04) 0.20 (0.05) 0.20 (0.05) 0.19 (0.05) 0.21 (0.04)
United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi) 0.01 (0.02) 0.04 (0.03) 0.08 (0.04) 0.17 (0.05) 0.16 (0.05) 0.17 (0.05) 0.17 (0.05) 0.18 (0.05) 0.18 (0.05) 0.17 (0.07) 0.26 (0.08)
United Arab Emirates (Dubai) 0.19 (0.06) 0.20 (0.06) 0.22 (0.07) 0.22 (0.07) 0.22 (0.07) 0.23 (0.07) 0.26 (0.07) 0.29 (0.07) 0.28 (0.08) 0.27 (0.08) 0.30 (0.08)
United States 0.33 (0.04) 0.37 (0.04) 0.38 (0.05) 0.37 (0.05) 0.37 (0.06) 0.41 (0.05) 0.41 (0.05) 0.41 (0.06) 0.41 (0.06) 0.46 (0.05) 0.52 (0.06)
Cross-country average 0.13 (0.01) 0.17 (0.01) 0.21 (0.01) 0.23 (0.01) 0.24 (0.01) 0.26 (0.01) 0.28 (0.01) 0.29 (0.01) 0.30 (0.01) 0.32 (0.01) 0.34 (0.01)
  1. Standard errors appear in parenthesis
  2. * Variables included in model: Model 1: ACBG05C; Model 2: ACBG05C, ACBG13AB; Model 3: ACBG05C, ACBG13AB, ACBG05A; Model 4: ACBG05C, ACBG13AB, ACBG05A, ACBG16B; Model 5: ACBG05C, ACBG13AB, ACBG05A, ACBG16B, ACBG16A; Model 6: ACBG05C, ACBG13AB, ACBG05A, ACBG16B, ACBG16A, ACBG12F; Model 7: ACBG05C, ACBG13AB, ACBG05A, ACBG16B, ACBG16A, ACBG12F, ACBG12E; Model 8: ACBG05C, ACBG13AB, ACBG05A, ACBG16B, ACBG16A, ACBG12F, ACBG12E, ACBG12H; Model 9: ACBG05C, ACBG13AB, ACBG05A, ACBG16B, ACBG16A, ACBG12F, ACBG12E, ACBG12H, ACBG12D; Model 10: ACBG05C, ACBG13AB, ACBG05A, ACBG16B, ACBG16A, ACBG12F, ACBG12E, ACBG12H, ACBG12D, ACBG03B; Model 11: ACBG05C, ACBG13AB, ACBG05A, ACBG16B, ACBG16A, ACBG12F, ACBG12E, ACBG12H, ACBG12D, ACBG03B, ACBG03A