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Table 4 TIMSS grade 8explained variance of school-averaged mathematics score by model and country

From: Evaluating the risk of nonresponse bias in educational large-scale assessments with school nonresponse questionnaires: a theoretical study

Country Model 1* Model 2* Model 3* Model 4* Model 5* Model 6* Model 7* Model 8* Model 9* Model 10*
R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.)
Armenia 0.06 (0.07) 0.07 (0.07) 0.14 (0.06) 0.14 (0.06) 0.14 (0.07) 0.15 (0.07) 0.21 (0.09) 0.21 (0.09) 0.26 (0.09) 0.27 (0.09)
Australia 0.20 (0.06) 0.22 (0.06) 0.28 (0.06) 0.33 (0.06) 0.33 (0.06) 0.33 (0.06) 0.35 (0.07) 0.36 (0.08) 0.39 (0.08) 0.40 (0.08)
Bahrain 0.11 (0.06) 0.14 (0.08) 0.26 (0.08) 0.39 (0.11) 0.41 (0.11) 0.43 (0.11) 0.44 (0.11) 0.43 (0.12) 0.43 (0.13) 0.43 (0.13)
Botswana 0.32 (0.10) 0.37 (0.10) 0.46 (0.10) 0.50 (0.11) 0.52 (0.11) 0.51 (0.11) 0.56 (0.08) 0.60 (0.07) 0.60 (0.07) 0.64 (0.07)
Canada (Alberta) 0.20 (0.09) 0.27 (0.09) 0.27 (0.09) 0.29 (0.10) 0.30 (0.10) 0.32 (0.10) 0.32 (0.10) 0.36 (0.11) 0.36 (0.11) 0.37 (0.11)
Canada (Ontario) 0.07 (0.04) 0.13 (0.05) 0.15 (0.05) 0.25 (0.05) 0.26 (0.06) 0.27 (0.06) 0.29 (0.08) 0.29 (0.08) 0.29 (0.08) 0.29 (0.08)
Canada (Quebec) 0.01 (0.08) 0.03 (0.08) 0.07 (0.13) 0.07 (0.14) 0.15 (0.08) 0.15 (0.08) 0.16 (0.09) 0.16 (0.10) 0.19 (0.09) 0.20 (0.10)
Chile 0.26 (0.08) 0.25 (0.10) 0.36 (0.09) 0.46 (0.06) 0.47 (0.07) 0.47 (0.06) 0.48 (0.06) 0.51 (0.06) 0.53 (0.06) 0.54 (0.06)
Chinese Taipei 0.26 (0.14) 0.38 (0.12) 0.38 (0.12) 0.44 (0.13) 0.44 (0.13) 0.48 (0.13) 0.52 (0.12) 0.52 (0.12) 0.52 (0.12) 0.54 (0.11)
England 0.07 (0.05) 0.13 (0.08) 0.15 (0.09) 0.15 (0.08) 0.16 (0.09) 0.16 (0.09) 0.17 (0.09) 0.18 (0.09) 0.26 (0.10) 0.26 (0.10)
Finland 0.05 (0.05) 0.04 (0.04) 0.11 (0.06) 0.14 (0.07) 0.16 (0.08) 0.16 (0.08) 0.17 (0.07) 0.20 (0.07) 0.24 (0.07) 0.26 (0.07)
Georgia 0.04 (0.03) 0.09 (0.08) 0.14 (0.09) 0.14 (0.09) 0.15 (0.09) 0.18 (0.09) 0.18 (0.09) 0.23 (0.09) 0.23 (0.09) 0.24 (0.10)
Ghana 0.04 (0.04) 0.08 (0.05) 0.15 (0.06) 0.19 (0.07) 0.19 (0.07) 0.19 (0.08) 0.27 (0.08) 0.29 (0.09) 0.31 (0.10) 0.36 (0.09)
Republic of Honduras 0.11 (0.09) 0.14 (0.11) 0.17 (0.11) 0.18 (0.11) 0.18 (0.11) 0.22 (0.13) 0.26 (0.12) 0.28 (0.18) 0.40 (0.14) 0.41 (0.14)
Hong Kong, SAR 0.19 (0.10) 0.21 (0.10) 0.35 (0.08) 0.39 (0.08) 0.39 (0.08) 0.39 (0.08) 0.43 (0.08) 0.45 (0.08) 0.57 (0.07) 0.57 (0.07)
Hungary 0.30 (0.07) 0.34 (0.06) 0.41 (0.07) 0.42 (0.07) 0.42 (0.07) 0.42 (0.06) 0.46 (0.08) 0.48 (0.08) 0.53 (0.09) 0.54 (0.09)
Indonesia 0.11 (0.08) 0.10 (0.08) 0.12 (0.08) 0.12 (0.08) 0.12 (0.09) 0.13 (0.09) 0.16 (0.09) 0.17 (0.10) 0.17 (0.10) 0.18 (0.09)
Islamic Republic of Iran 0.23 (0.07) 0.22 (0.07) 0.23 (0.08) 0.26 (0.09) 0.27 (0.09) 0.27 (0.09) 0.35 (0.09) 0.41 (0.08) 0.41 (0.08) 0.42 (0.09)
Israel 0.33 (0.09) 0.36 (0.09) 0.36 (0.10) 0.38 (0.10) 0.43 (0.09) 0.43 (0.09) 0.44 (0.09) 0.45 (0.09) 0.48 (0.08) 0.51 (0.08)
Italy 0.10 (0.05) 0.14 (0.08) 0.20 (0.08) 0.22 (0.08) 0.23 (0.08) 0.26 (0.08) 0.26 (0.08) 0.26 (0.08) 0.30 (0.09) 0.30 (0.09)
Japan 0.22 (0.10) 0.27 (0.11) 0.30 (0.10) 0.31 (0.10) 0.31 (0.10) 0.32 (0.10) 0.42 (0.08) 0.42 (0.08) 0.44 (0.08) 0.45 (0.08)
Jordan 0.14 (0.08) 0.14 (0.10) 0.22 (0.06) 0.28 (0.07) 0.31 (0.07) 0.32 (0.07) 0.37 (0.07) 0.36 (0.07) 0.37 (0.06) 0.37 (0.06)
Kazakhstan 0.02 (0.03) 0.04 (0.04) 0.04 (0.04) 0.05 (0.04) 0.07 (0.05) 0.08 (0.05) 0.11 (0.04) 0.12 (0.04) 0.18 (0.06) 0.32 (0.07)
Republic of Korea 0.21 (0.05) 0.37 (0.08) 0.37 (0.10) 0.47 (0.10) 0.55 (0.10) 0.56 (0.10) 0.60 (0.10) 0.60 (0.10) 0.65 (0.08) 0.67 (0.08)
Lebanon 0.23 (0.09) 0.19 (0.09) 0.26 (0.09) 0.31 (0.09) 0.33 (0.09) 0.33 (0.09) 0.32 (0.09) 0.31 (0.09) 0.33 (0.07) 0.35 (0.08)
Lithuania 0.08 (0.08) 0.17 (0.06) 0.20 (0.06) 0.25 (0.07) 0.27 (0.08) 0.27 (0.08) 0.38 (0.07) 0.40 (0.07) 0.41 (0.07) 0.41 (0.07)
Macedonia 0.17 (0.06) 0.20 (0.07) 0.21 (0.06) 0.21 (0.06) 0.28 (0.08) 0.31 (0.09) 0.43 (0.08) 0.43 (0.08) 0.46 (0.08) 0.46 (0.08)
Malaysia 0.04 (0.03) 0.04 (0.03) 0.04 (0.04) 0.06 (0.05) 0.06 (0.05) 0.08 (0.04) 0.14 (0.06) 0.17 (0.06) 0.30 (0.07) 0.31 (0.07)
Morocco 0.25 (0.10) 0.36 (0.11) 0.45 (0.11) 0.48 (0.10) 0.49 (0.10) 0.49 (0.10) 0.53 (0.09) 0.55 (0.09) 0.55 (0.09) 0.55 (0.09)
New Zealand 0.24 (0.07) 0.30 (0.06) 0.30 (0.06) 0.33 (0.06) 0.37 (0.07) 0.37 (0.07) 0.39 (0.06) 0.40 (0.06) 0.40 (0.06) 0.42 (0.06)
Oman 0.05 (0.03) 0.09 (0.05) 0.11 (0.05) 0.14 (0.07) 0.17 (0.06) 0.21 (0.06) 0.21 (0.06) 0.25 (0.07) 0.25 (0.07) 0.25 (0.07)
Palestinian National Authority 0.03 (0.04) 0.04 (0.04) 0.05 (0.04) 0.10 (0.07) 0.11 (0.07) 0.13 (0.07) 0.13 (0.07) 0.13 (0.07) 0.14 (0.07) 0.14 (0.07)
Qatar −0.01 (0.00) −0.02 (0.01) 0.02 (0.05) 0.02 (0.05) 0.01 (0.05) 0.03 (0.06) 0.02 (0.07) 0.19 (0.12) 0.19 (0.12) 0.20 (0.11)
Romania 0.06 (0.04) 0.07 (0.04) 0.14 (0.07) 0.20 (0.06) 0.20 (0.06) 0.20 (0.06) 0.28 (0.06) 0.30 (0.06) 0.34 (0.06) 0.39 (0.07)
Russian Federation 0.08 (0.06) 0.11 (0.09) 0.14 (0.09) 0.14 (0.09) 0.14 (0.10) 0.14 (0.10) 0.15 (0.10) 0.15 (0.11) 0.16 (0.11) 0.16 (0.11)
Saudi Arabia 0.02 (0.04) 0.04 (0.04) 0.11 (0.05) 0.15 (0.09) 0.19 (0.09) 0.19 (0.10) 0.24 (0.09) 0.25 (0.09) 0.29 (0.09) 0.30 (0.09)
Singapore 0.21 (0.06) 0.24 (0.08) 0.25 (0.08) 0.30 (0.08) 0.31 (0.08) 0.30 (0.08) 0.30 (0.08) 0.30 (0.08) 0.33 (0.08) 0.33 (0.08)
Slovenia 0.02 (0.02) 0.06 (0.04) 0.06 (0.04) 0.06 (0.04) 0.07 (0.04) 0.09 (0.05) 0.10 (0.05) 0.10 (0.05) 0.10 (0.06) 0.12 (0.06)
South Africa 0.14 (0.09) 0.22 (0.08) 0.24 (0.08) 0.24 (0.09) 0.27 (0.10) 0.37 (0.09) 0.52 (0.06) 0.52 (0.07) 0.52 (0.07) 0.61 (0.06)
Sweden 0.12 (0.05) 0.08 (0.05) 0.13 (0.08) 0.15 (0.08) 0.16 (0.10) 0.16 (0.10) 0.16 (0.10) 0.16 (0.10) 0.44 (0.10) 0.47 (0.10)
Arab Republic of Syria 0.01 (0.03) 0.00 (0.02) 0.01 (0.03) 0.01 (0.03) 0.02 (0.03) 0.03 (0.05) 0.05 (0.06) 0.05 (0.05) 0.09 (0.07) 0.15 (0.09)
Thailand 0.01 (0.02) 0.09 (0.10) 0.09 (0.10) 0.09 (0.10) 0.10 (0.10) 0.10 (0.10) 0.10 (0.10) 0.11 (0.10) 0.12 (0.11) 0.12 (0.11)
Tunisia 0.05 (0.04) 0.05 (0.04) 0.08 (0.06) 0.08 (0.06) 0.10 (0.06) 0.09 (0.06) 0.10 (0.06) 0.10 (0.06) 0.13 (0.06) 0.16 (0.05)
Turkey 0.21 (0.06) 0.23 (0.07) 0.35 (0.08) 0.41 (0.08) 0.42 (0.07) 0.43 (0.07) 0.46 (0.07) 0.49 (0.07) 0.50 (0.07) 0.50 (0.07)
Ukraine 0.00 (0.01) 0.01 (0.02) 0.06 (0.05) 0.09 (0.07) 0.09 (0.07) 0.09 (0.07) 0.11 (0.09) 0.18 (0.08) 0.23 (0.07) 0.26 (0.06)
United Arab Emirates 0.02 (0.01) 0.02 (0.01) 0.17 (0.04) 0.24 (0.04) 0.24 (0.04) 0.25 (0.04) 0.28 (0.04) 0.28 (0.04) 0.31 (0.04) 0.31 (0.04)
United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi) 0.02 (0.03) 0.01 (0.03) 0.10 (0.06) 0.21 (0.07) 0.21 (0.07) 0.22 (0.07) 0.34 (0.07) 0.37 (0.07) 0.38 (0.07) 0.39 (0.06)
United Arab Emirates (Dubai) 0.08 (0.05) 0.12 (0.05) 0.38 (0.07) 0.41 (0.07) 0.41 (0.06) 0.42 (0.07) 0.41 (0.07) 0.42 (0.06) 0.44 (0.06) 0.45 (0.06)
United States 0.27 (0.10) 0.28 (0.10) 0.28 (0.10) 0.38 (0.20) 0.41 (0.22) 0.41 (0.22) 0.41 (0.22) 0.41 (0.22) 0.42 (0.23) 0.42 (0.23)
Cross-country average 0.12 (0.01) 0.15 (0.01) 0.20 (0.01) 0.24 (0.01) 0.25 (0.01) 0.26 (0.01) 0.30 (0.01) 0.31 (0.01) 0.34 (0.01) 0.36 (0.01)
  1. Standard errors appear in parenthesis
  2. * Variables included in model: Model 1: BCBG03A; Model 2: BCBG03A, BCBG03B; Model 3: BCBG03A, BCBG03B, BCBG11D; Model 4: BCBG03A, BCBG03B, BCBG11D, BCBG11H; Model 5: BCBG03A, BCBG03B, BCBG11D, BCBG11H, BCBG11E; Model 6: BCBG03A, BCBG03B, BCBG11D, BCBG11H, BCBG11E, BCBG11F; Model 7: BCBG03A, BCBG03B, BCBG11D, BCBG11H, BCBG11E, BCBG11F, BCBG05B; Model 8: BCBG03A, BCBG03B, BCBG11D, BCBG11H, BCBG11E, BCBG11F, BCBG05B, BCBG05A; Model 9: BCBG03A, BCBG03B, BCBG11D, BCBG11H, BCBG11E, BCBG11F, BCBG05B, BCBG05A, BCBG12AB; Model 10: BCBG03A, BCBG03B, BCBG11D, BCBG11H, BCBG11E, BCBG11F, BCBG05B, BCBG05A, BCBG12AB, BCBG05C