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Table 3 TIMSS grade 4—explained variance of school-averaged mathematics score by model and country

From: Evaluating the risk of nonresponse bias in educational large-scale assessments with school nonresponse questionnaires: a theoretical study

Country Model 1* Model 2* Model 3* Model 4* Model 5* Model 6*
R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.) R2 (adj.)
Armenia 0.00 (0.01) 0.01 (0.02) 0.01 (0.03) 0.08 (0.06) 0.11 (0.07) 0.11 (0.08)
Australia 0.31 (0.06) 0.33 (0.07) 0.33 (0.08) 0.41 (0.06) 0.42 (0.06) 0.42 (0.06)
Austria 0.09 (0.06) 0.15 (0.06) 0.16 (0.06) 0.19 (0.07) 0.19 (0.07) 0.20 (0.07)
Republic of Azerbaijan 0.02 (0.03) 0.05 (0.05) 0.06 (0.06) 0.05 (0.06) 0.07 (0.05) 0.09 (0.07)
Bahrain 0.12 (0.05) 0.14 (0.06) 0.15 (0.06) 0.21 (0.07) 0.22 (0.07) 0.23 (0.07)
Belgium (Flemish) 0.21 (0.08) 0.21 (0.08) 0.23 (0.09) 0.27 (0.08) 0.28 (0.08) 0.30 (0.08)
Botswana 0.25 (0.09) 0.29 (0.09) 0.32 (0.09) 0.35 (0.10) 0.37 (0.10) 0.37 (0.10)
Canada (Alberta) 0.26 (0.09) 0.35 (0.09) 0.36 (0.10) 0.36 (0.10) 0.37 (0.10) 0.37 (0.10)
Canada (Ontario) 0.19 (0.06) 0.22 (0.07) 0.25 (0.07) 0.28 (0.06) 0.28 (0.06) 0.28 (0.06)
Canada (Quebec) 0.07 (0.05) 0.07 (0.06) 0.07 (0.07) 0.14 (0.08) 0.15 (0.08) 0.16 (0.09)
Chile 0.37 (0.05) 0.38 (0.06) 0.39 (0.06) 0.39 (0.06) 0.39 (0.06) 0.47 (0.07)
Chinese Taipei 0.50 (0.09) 0.60 (0.06) 0.65 (0.06) 0.66 (0.06) 0.66 (0.07) 0.66 (0.07)
Croatia 0.15 (0.09) 0.17 (0.10) 0.17 (0.10) 0.17 (0.10) 0.17 (0.09) 0.20 (0.09)
Czech Republic 0.03 (0.04) 0.03 (0.04) 0.11 (0.08) 0.14 (0.07) 0.15 (0.08) 0.21 (0.06)
Denmark 0.12 (0.08) 0.09 (0.07) 0.09 (0.07) 0.10 (0.07) 0.10 (0.06) 0.10 (0.06)
England 0.24 (0.07) 0.30 (0.08) 0.31 (0.08) 0.35 (0.07) 0.36 (0.07) 0.36 (0.07)
Finland 0.12 (0.06) 0.12 (0.06) 0.12 (0.07) 0.17 (0.06) 0.18 (0.06) 0.21 (0.08)
Georgia 0.05 (0.05) 0.03 (0.05) 0.04 (0.05) 0.05 (0.06) 0.05 (0.06) 0.06 (0.07)
Germany 0.44 (0.06) 0.44 (0.06) 0.44 (0.07) 0.49 (0.07) 0.49 (0.07) 0.51 (0.07)
Republic of Honduras 0.04 (0.05) 0.13 (0.09) 0.13 (0.08) 0.13 (0.08) 0.13 (0.09) 0.15 (0.08)
Hong Kong, SAR 0.01 (0.06) 0.00 (0.12) 0.01 (0.12) 0.01 (0.12) 0.03 (0.11) 0.05 (0.09)
Hungary 0.37 (0.06) 0.39 (0.06) 0.40 (0.06) 0.40 (0.06) 0.40 (0.06) 0.41 (0.06)
Islamic Republic of Iran 0.14 (0.05) 0.15 (0.06) 0.16 (0.06) 0.21 (0.06) 0.21 (0.06) 0.21 (0.06)
Ireland 0.19 (0.05) 0.28 (0.07) 0.29 (0.08) 0.32 (0.08) 0.32 (0.08) 0.33 (0.09)
Italy 0.00 (0.01) 0.01 (0.01) 0.01 (0.03) 0.02 (0.04) 0.03 (0.04) 0.03 (0.04)
Japan 0.04 (0.05) 0.07 (0.06) 0.11 (0.08) 0.15 (0.07) 0.18 (0.07) 0.28 (0.07)
Kazakhstan 0.01 (0.03) 0.01 (0.04) 0.12 (0.06) 0.12 (0.06) 0.13 (0.06) 0.13 (0.06)
Republic of Korea 0.31 (0.11) 0.39 (0.11) 0.53 (0.08) 0.56 (0.08) 0.56 (0.08) 0.56 (0.08)
Kuwait 0.03 (0.04) 0.08 (0.05) 0.11 (0.05) 0.17 (0.07) 0.22 (0.06) 0.22 (0.07)
Lithuania 0.20 (0.08) 0.21 (0.08) 0.22 (0.08) 0.22 (0.09) 0.22 (0.08) 0.23 (0.09)
Malta 0.19 (0.07) 0.21 (0.08) 0.22 (0.08) 0.21 (0.07) 0.20 (0.07) 0.20 (0.07)
Morocco 0.00 (0.01) 0.05 (0.04) 0.06 (0.05) 0.08 (0.06) 0.08 (0.05) 0.15 (0.08)
Netherlands 0.23 (0.08) 0.22 (0.10) 0.29 (0.11) 0.29 (0.12) 0.29 (0.12) 0.27 (0.12)
New Zealand 0.39 (0.05) 0.43 (0.06) 0.43 (0.06) 0.47 (0.06) 0.47 (0.06) 0.49 (0.06)
Northern Ireland 0.40 (0.06) 0.42 (0.06) 0.40 (0.06) 0.41 (0.07) 0.44 (0.08) 0.50 (0.07)
Norway 0.03 (0.03) 0.03 (0.03) 0.04 (0.04) 0.09 (0.06) 0.13 (0.05) 0.13 (0.06)
Oman 0.04 (0.03) 0.04 (0.03) 0.08 (0.04) 0.08 (0.04) 0.10 (0.04) 0.11 (0.04)
Poland 0.07 (0.07) 0.08 (0.07) 0.21 (0.07) 0.22 (0.07) 0.22 (0.07) 0.22 (0.07)
Portugal 0.07 (0.08) 0.04 (0.08) 0.04 (0.08) 0.03 (0.07) 0.03 (0.08) 0.05 (0.07)
Qatar 0.04 (0.03) 0.06 (0.03) 0.07 (0.04) 0.15 (0.06) 0.15 (0.06) 0.16 (0.06)
Romania 0.00 (0.01) 0.01 (0.03) 0.01 (0.03) 0.03 (0.04) 0.03 (0.05) 0.08 (0.06)
Russian Federation 0.07 (0.06) 0.07 (0.07) 0.09 (0.07) 0.09 (0.07) 0.10 (0.08) 0.10 (0.08)
Saudi Arabia 0.01 (0.02) 0.03 (0.05) 0.05 (0.05) 0.05 (0.05) 0.05 (0.05) 0.05 (0.05)
Serbia 0.00 (0.01) 0.07 (0.04) 0.08 (0.05) 0.08 (0.05) 0.08 (0.06) 0.10 (0.06)
Singapore 0.17 (0.05) 0.25 (0.06) 0.25 (0.06) 0.29 (0.06) 0.29 (0.06) 0.30 (0.06)
Slovak Republic 0.06 (0.05) 0.10 (0.08) 0.10 (0.08) 0.11 (0.08) 0.18 (0.09) 0.19 (0.09)
Slovenia 0.04 (0.04) 0.05 (0.05) 0.05 (0.05) 0.09 (0.07) 0.09 (0.08) 0.12 (0.09)
Spain 0.20 (0.09) 0.19 (0.09) 0.27 (0.09) 0.32 (0.09) 0.33 (0.09) 0.33 (0.09)
Sweden 0.25 (0.07) 0.26 (0.08) 0.35 (0.09) 0.35 (0.08) 0.35 (0.09) 0.36 (0.08)
Thailand 0.01 (0.01) 0.08 (0.05) 0.07 (0.06) 0.08 (0.06) 0.14 (0.08) 0.15 (0.07)
Tunisia 0.11 (0.05) 0.17 (0.06) 0.17 (0.06) 0.22 (0.05) 0.22 (0.06) 0.23 (0.05)
Turkey 0.14 (0.04) 0.15 (0.05) 0.18 (0.05) 0.28 (0.07) 0.33 (0.08) 0.33 (0.07)
United Arab Emirates 0.04 (0.02) 0.06 (0.03) 0.07 (0.03) 0.13 (0.04) 0.13 (0.04) 0.15 (0.04)
United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi) 0.02 (0.02) 0.03 (0.04) 0.04 (0.05) 0.07 (0.06) 0.08 (0.06) 0.13 (0.06)
United Arab Emirates (Dubai) 0.15 (0.07) 0.12 (0.07) 0.22 (0.07) 0.33 (0.07) 0.32 (0.07) 0.32 (0.07)
United States 0.09 (0.17) 0.08 (0.18) 0.09 (0.23) 0.10 (0.22) 0.10 (0.22) 0.16 (0.22)
Yemen 0.07 (0.08) 0.13 (0.11) 0.14 (0.11) 0.20 (0.12) 0.29 (0.13) 0.29 (0.13)
Yemen (grade 6) 0.01 (0.02) 0.01 (0.03) 0.03 (0.04) 0.03 (0.05) 0.11 (0.07) 0.11 (0.07)
Cross-country average 0.13 (0.01) 0.16 (0.01) 0.18 (0.01) 0.21 (0.01) 0.22 (0.01) 0.24 (0.01)
  1. Standard errors appear in parenthesis
  2. * Variables included in model: Model 1: ACBG03A; Model 2: ACBG03A, ACBG03B; Model 3: ACBG03A, ACBG03B, ACBG05C; Model 4: ACBG03A, ACBG03B, ACBG05C, ACBG12E; Model 5: ACBG03A, ACBG03B, ACBG05C, ACBG12E, ACBG12F; Model 6: ACBG03A, ACBG03B, ACBG05C, ACBG12E, ACBG12F, ACBG12H