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Table 1 Percentages of countries failing the participation rate requirements in IEA studies (last 10 years)

From: Evaluating the risk of nonresponse bias in educational large-scale assessments with school nonresponse questionnaires: a theoretical study

Study, cycle and target population Number of participating countries Countries failing participation rate requirements* at
School level (before replacement) School level (after replacement) Within schools (individual level)
% Count % Count % Count
Studies with school students comprising the target population
ICCS 2009—grade 8 students 42 33.3 14 14.3 6 0.0 0
ICILS 2013—grade 8 students 21 33.3 7 23.8 5 9.5 2
PIRLS 2006—grade 4 students 47 12.8 6 4.3 2 4.3 2
PIRLS 2011—grade 4 students 58 13.8 8 1.7 1 1.7 1
TIMSS 2007—grade 4 students 43 20.9 9 7.0 3 0.0 0
TIMSS 2007—grade 8 students 56 14.3 8 7.1 4 0.0 0
TIMSS 2011—grade 4 students 50 20.0 10 6.0 3 0.0 0
TIMSS 2011—grade 8 students 59 6.8 4 3.4 2 0.0 0
TIMSS advanced 2008
 Advanced mathematics students 10 10.0 1 10.0 1 0.0 0
TIMSS advanced 2008
 Physics students 9 22.2 2 0.0 0 11.1 1
Overall 395 17.5 69 6.8 27 1.5 6
Studies with adults comprising the target population
ICCS 2009—grade 8 teachers 37 37.8 14 29.7 11 21.6 8
ICILS 2013—grade 8 teachers 21 42.9 9 38.1 8 28.6 6
SITES 2006—math teachers 22 59.1 13 40.9 9 22.7 5
SITES 2006—science teachers 22 59.1 13 40.9 9 31.8 7
TEDS-M 2008—future primary        
Math teachers** 16 6.3 1 6.3 1 37.5 6
Secondary math teachers**        
TEDS-M 2008—future lower 16 31.3 5 31.3 5 56.3 9
TEDS-M 2008        
University educators** 16 37.5 6 37.5 6 37.5 6
Overall 150 40.7 61 32.7 49 31.3 47
  1. * Minimum participation rates are 85% for schools; 85% for individuals within schools (computed across all participating schools)
  2. ** In TEDS-M, “schools” were institutions that offer education programs for future primary or lower-secondary mathematics teachers