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Table 3 Relationships between personality, numeracy, and important life outcomes

From: Personality, competencies, and life outcomes: results from the German PIAAC longitudinal study

Model Income (log)a,b Health Life satisfaction
I II III I II III I II III
Extraversion (linear) .03   .04 .02   .02 .01   .02
Agreeableness (linear) −.02   −.01 .05**   .05** .09***   .09***
Conscientiousness (linear) −.02   .00 .04*   .04* .13***   .14***
Emotional stability (linear) .01   .00 .21***   .20*** .32***   .31***
Openness (linear) −.12***   −.12*** −.01   −.01 .00   .00 
Extraversion (quadratic) −.02   −.03 .00   .00 −.01   −.01
Agreeableness (quadratic) .05*   .05* .00   .00 .02   .02
Conscientiousness (quadratic) −.04   −.03 −.02   −.02 .00   .01
Emotional stability (quadratic) −.02   −.03 −.04**   −.04* −.02   −.02
Openness (quadratic) −.07**   −.07** −.02   −.01 −.03   −.02
Numeracyc   .14*** .14***   .12*** .10***   .13*** .11***
Age .22*** .25*** .25*** −.34*** −.30*** −.31*** −.12*** −.06*** −.09***
Gender (women) −.13*** −.13*** −.11*** .00 −.01 .01 .03* .01 .04**
Education .28*** .20*** .21*** .14*** .10*** .09*** .11*** .09*** .06**
Migration (migrant) −.01 .00 .01 −.02 −.01  .00 −.04** −.04* −.02
N 1626 1626 1626 3716 3716 3716 3717 3717 3717
R2 .19 .18 .20 .16 .11 .17 .17 .04 .17
  1. Values are standardized regression coefficients, * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001
  2. aOnly respondents who are not retired
  3. bOnly respondents who are employed full-time
  4. cUsing different plausible values did not change the pattern of results. The regression coefficients for numeracy maximally changed by ∆ = .05. Detailed results for all ten plausible values are presented in Additional file 1: Table S1