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Table 2 Relationships between personality, numeracy, and important life outcomes

From: Personality, competencies, and life outcomes: results from the German PIAAC longitudinal study

Model Highest level of education (ISCED 1997)a Employment status (full-time)a,b Continuing educationa,b
I II III I II III I II III
Extraversion (linear) −.09***   −.04* .01   .02 −.02   −.01
Agreeableness (linear) −.04*   −.03 −.12***   −.12*** −.05*   −.05
Conscientiousness (linear) −.03   −.01 .17***   .18*** .03   .04
Emotional stability (linear) .12***   .05** .12***   .11*** .06*   .04
Openness (linear) .14***   .10*** −.02   −.02 .01   .01
Extraversion (quadratic) −.02   −.01 .05   .05 −.04   −.04
Agreeableness (quadratic) −.04*   −.04* −.02   −.01 .02   .02
Conscientiousness (quadratic) −.07***   −.03 .01   .02 −.03   −.02
Emotional stability (quadratic) −.03   −.02 −.01   −.01 −.02   −.02
Openness (quadratic) −.01   .00 −.01   −.01 .01   .02
Numeracyd   .52*** .50***   .15*** .16***   .18*** .18***
Age .16*** .23*** .22*** −.15*** −.10*** −.13*** −.07** −.03 −.04
Gender (women) −.01 .03* .04* −.53*** −.52*** −.52*** −.03 −.02 −.01
Education .27*** .20*** .20*** .34*** .26*** .26***
Migration (migrant) −.09*** .01 .01 −.03 −.01 −.00 −.08*** −.06* −.06*
N 3174 3174 3174 2868 2868 2868 2800 2800 2800
R2 .08 .29 .30 .31c .29c .32c .13c .14c .15c
  1. aOnly respondents who have completed their education (paus1_14)
  2. bOnly respondents who are not retired
  3. cPseudo R2
  4. dUsing different plausible values did not change the pattern of results. The regression coefficients for numeracy maximally changed by ∆ = .05. Detailed results for all ten plausible values are presented in Additional file 1: Table S1
  5. * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001