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Table 3 Fit indices and model comparisons of invariance testing with gender as the grouping variable (correlated-traits models)

From: The relation between teachers’ emphasis on the development of students’ digital information and communication skills and computer self-efficacy: the moderating roles of age and gender

Model χ2 (df) CFI TLI RMSEA 90 % CI RMSEA Δχ2df) ΔCFI ΔTLI ΔRMSEA
Measurement invariance models of TEDDICS
 Configural invariance 425.9 (102)*** .985 .981 .077 [.070, .085]
 Metric invariance 427.9 (111)*** .986 .983 .073 [.066, .080] 14.2 (9) ns +.001 +.002 −.004
 Scalar invariance 424.1 (132)*** .987 .987 .064 [.057, .071] 47.6 (30)* +.002 +.006 −.013
Measurement invariance models of CSE
 Configural invariance 258.5 (148)*** .982 .978 .037 [.030, .045]
 Metric invariance 276.9 (159)*** .981 .978 .037 [.030, .044] 28.5 (11)** −.001 .000 .000
 Scalar invariance 311.7 (170)*** .977 .976 .039 [.032, .046] 77.3 (22)*** −.005 −.002 +.002
  1. The configural invariance model was used as the reference for model comparisons. N = 1071
  2. p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001, ns statistically insignificant (p > .05)